Forest Fires Behavior and Ecological Effects

ISBN-10: 012386660X

ISBN-13: 9780123866608

Edition: 2001

Authors: Edward A. Johnson, Kiyoko Miyanishi

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Description:

Even before the myth of Prometheus, fire played a crucial ecological role around the world. Numerous plant communities depend on fire to generate species diversity in both time and space. Without fire such ecosystems would become sterile monocultures. Recent efforts to prohibit fire in fire dependent communities have contributed to more intense and more damaging fires. For these reasons, foresters, ecologists, land managers, geographers, and environmental scientists are interested in the behavior and ecological effects of fires. This book will be the first to focus on the chemistry and physics of fire as it relates to the ways in which fire behaves and the impacts it has on ecosystem function. Leading international contributors have been recruited by the editors to prepare a didactic text/reference that will appeal to both advanced students and practicing professionals.
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Book details

List price: $122.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 1/29/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 594
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

Contributors
Preface
Acknowledgments
Strengthening Fire Ecology's Roots
Introduction
Processes
Transfer Rates and Budgets
Examples of Traditional vs. Proposed Approach
References
Flames
Introduction
Basic Aspects of Combustion in Forest Fires
Temperature, Velocity, Species Concentration, and Flame Height
Premixed and Diffusion Flames
Extinction of Diffusion Flames
Diffusion Flames and Scaling Analysis
Spreading Flames
Structure of Flame Base
Conclusions
Notation
References
Combustion Chemistry and Smoke
Introduction
Fuel Chemistry and Combustion
Smoke Production
Minimizing Smoke Production
Conclusions
References
Water Relations of Forest Fuels
Introduction
Forest Fuels
Fuel Moisture Relationships
Moisture Content Estimation
Notation
Additional Reading
References
Wildland Fire Spread Models
Introduction
Head Fire Rate of Spread (Physical Principles and Their Mathematical Embodiment)
Head Fire Rate of Spread: Australia
Head Fire Rate of Spread: United States
Head Fire Rate of Spread: Canada
Smoldering
Whole Fire Modeling--Fire Shape
Notation
References
Wind-Aided Fire Spread
Introduction
Laboratory-Scale Setup
Fire Spread Model
Preliminary Testing of the Model
Test Results for the Effect of Wind Speed and Fuel Loading on the Rate of Fire Spread
Conclusions
Notation
Recommended Reading
References
Fire Plumes
Introduction
Modeling Fire Temperature Maxima
Plumes above Fires in a Cross Wind
Notation
References
Coupling Atmospheric and Fire Models
Introduction
Vorticity Dynamics in a Fire
Coupling between Atmosphere and Fire
The Elements of Fire Modeling
Modeling the Atmosphere
The Coupled Fire--Atmosphere Modeling Approach
Idealized Studies of Wildfire Behavior
Infrared Observations of Fires
Conclusions and Future Work
Circulation and Vorticity
Development of Vertical Rotation in a Frictionless Fluid
Generation of Vertical Motion in Rotating Convective Cells
Notation
References
Surface Energy Budget and Fuel Moisture
Introduction
Evapotranspiration Processes and the Meteorological Controlling Factors
Estimation of Potential Evapotranspiration Rates
Functional Dependence of PET and AET
Characteristics of PET
Near-Surface Environment
Models of Land-Surface Interactions
Remote Sensing of the Surface Energy Budget
Fire Weather Rating Systems
Notation
Suggested Reading List
References
Climate, Weather, and Area Burned
Introduction
Weather and Area Burned--Synoptic Surface Features
Weather and Area Burned--Upper Air Features
Teleconnections
Future Warming and Area Burned
Summary
References
Lightning and Forest Fires
Introduction
Lightning
Previous Studies of Lightning-Initiated Fire
Interaction between Lightning and Fuels
How Ignition Occurs
Ignition Experiments with Real Forest Fuels
Generating Models for Operational Use
Smoke, Lightning, and Cloud Microphysics
Global Implications of Lightning Ignition Characteristics
Conclusion
References
Statistical Inference for Historical Fire Frequency Using the Spatial Mosaic
Introduction
Graphical Analysis
Statistical Inference with Prespecified Change Points
The Efficiency of Sample vs. Map Data
Determining Epochs of Constant Fire Frequency
References
Duff Consumption
Introduction
Characteristics of Duff
Empirical Studies of Duff Consumption
Flaming Combustion
Smoldering Combustion and Pyrolysis
Models of Smoldering Combustion
Contribution of Smoldering Combustion Models to Understanding of Duff Consumption
Notation
References
Fire Effects on Trees
Introduction
Effects of Fire on the Tree Bole
Effects of Fire on Canopy Components
Root Necrosis
Tree Mortality
Discussion
Notation
Additional Readings
References
Forest Fire Management
Introduction
The Relationship between Fire and Forest Land Management Objectives
Assessing Fire Impacts
Forest Fire Management Organizations
Level of Fire Protection Planning
Some Challenges
Further Reading
References
Index
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