Concise Encyclopedia of the Ethics of New Technologies

ISBN-10: 0121663558

ISBN-13: 9780121663551

Edition: 2001

Authors: Ruth Chadwick

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The implications of personal, social, political and philosophical attitudes toward new technologies will guide our world in the future. This collection of articles seeks to inform and influence that conversation.
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Book details

List price: $165.00
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: Elsevier Science & Technology Books
Publication date: 10/23/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 404
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.882
Language: English

Ruth Chadwick is Distinguished Research Professor and Director of the ESRC (Economic and Social Sciences Research Council) Centre for Economic and Social Aspects of Genomics (Cesagen), at Cardiff University, UK and Link Chair between Cardiff Law School and the School of English, Communication and Philosophy (ENCAP). Professor Chadwick has coordinated a number of projects funded by the European Commission, including the EUROSCREEN projects and co-edits the journal Bioethics and the online journal Genomics, Society and Policy. She is Chair of the Human Genome Organisation Committee on Ethics, Law and Society, and has served as a member of several policy-making and advisory bodies, including the Panel of Eminent Ethical Experts of the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), and the UK Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes (ACNFP). She was editor-in-chief of the first edition of the award winning Encyclopedia of Applied Ethics. She is an Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences and a Fellow of the Hastings Center, New York; of the Royal Society of Arts; and of the Royal Society of Medicine. In 2005 she was the winner of the World Technology Network Award for Ethics for her work on the relationship between scientific developments and ethical frameworks. She graduated with first class Honours Literae Humaniores (Philosophy and Greek and Latin Literature) from the University of Oxford, and then went on to take the B.Phil. in Philosophy. She was awarded her D.Phil. on The Ethics of Eugenics and Genetic Engineering, supervised by Jonathan Glover. She completed an LL.B. (externally) at the University of London. She held positions at the University of Liverpool, St. Martins College, Lancaster, and University of Wales, Cardiff, before taking up her post as Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Central Lancashire. In June 1995 she became Head of the Centre for Professional Ethics at the University, a position she still holds. She has coordinated a number of multinational and multidisciplinary research projects funded by the European Union: Ethical Implications of Human Genome Analysis for Clinical Practice in Medical Genetics, with Special Reference to Genetic Counselling (1992); EUROSCREEN: Genetic Screening--Ethical and Philosophical Perspectives (1994-1996); BIOCULT: Cultural and Social Objections to Biotechnology, with Special Reference to the View of Young People (1995); EUROSCREEN 2: Genetic Screening--Towards Community Policy on Insurance, Commercialisation and Public Awareness (1996-1999). Her publications include the four volume edited collection, Kant: Critical Assessments (1992); Ethics, Reproduction and Genetic Control (Revised Edition, 1992);and a large number of papers in learned journals. She is joint series editor of the Routledge series on Professional Ethics. Professor Chadwick is secretary of the International Association of Bioethics and a member of the HUGO Ethics committee, the National Committee for Philosophy and the British Medical Association Steering Group on Human Genetics.

A Guide to the Encyclopedia
Bioethics, Overview
Historical Notes on Bioethics
Substantive Issues in Bioethics
Disciplinary Approaches to Bioethics
Foundational Ethical Assumptions in Bioethics--Phil Osophical/Ethical "Schools" of Bioethics
The History of Biotechnology
Techniques in Modern Biotechnology
Ethical Arguments for and Against Biotechnology
Case Studies
Birth-Control Technology
Introduction and Overview
Approaches to Birth Control and Moral Distinctions
Contemporary Methods of Birth Control
Future Methods of Birth Control
Brain Death
The Historical Framework of the Harvard Committee Proposal
Why was the Harvard Proposal so Successful?
The Defense of the Traditional Definition of Death
The Medical Inconsistencies of the "Whole Brain Death" Definition
The Move Toward a Neocortical Definition and its Problems
Back to the "Traditional" Definition?
Brain Death and Brain Life
A Paradigm of Bioethics
Scientific and Technical Background
Suggested Uses of Cloning
Moral and Religious Issues
Policy Developments
Computer and Information Ethics
The Uniqueness of Computers
Privacy and Monitoring
Information Provision
Software as Intellectual Property
Organization Structure and the Location of Work
Computer Misuse
Developing Information Systems
Computer Professionalism
Consequentialism and Deontology
Embryology, Ethics of
A Short Outline of the Development of the Human Embryo
Embryology and in Vitro Fertilization
What is the Connection Between Embryology and Applied Ethics?
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Ethics
Ways of Life and the Environment
The Nature Contract
Ecosocial Morality in the Community
Globalization and Ecosocial Solidarity
Policy of Small Action
Legitimacy and Political Efficiency
Environmental Impact Assessment as Rational Action
Model of Social Action
Environmental Impact Assessment
Social Impact Assessment
Feminist Ethics
Feminine Approaches to Ethics
Maternal Approaches to Ethics
Political Approaches to Ethics
Lesbian Approaches to Ethics
Applications of Feminist Ethics
Fetal Research
Types of Fetal Research
Status of the Fetus
The Politics of Fetal Research
The Controversy over Fetal Tissue Transplantation
Fetal Research and Abortion
Gene Therapy
Definitions and Distinctions
Pragmatic Concerns
Arguments in Favor of Gene Therapy
Arguments Against Gene Therapy
Genetic Counseling
The Scope of Genetic Counseling
Genetic Testing and Genetic Screening
The Goals of Genetic Counseling
Autonomy, Informed Consent and "Non-Directiveness"
Confidentiality and Genetic Privacy--Within the Family
Confidentiality and Genetic Privacy--Third Parties
Genetic Testing of Children
Genetic Engineering
The Consequences of Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering and Unnaturalness
Deontological Objections to Genetic Engineering
Genetic Engineering and Risk
Moral Assessment and Technology
Medication and Geneticization
A Fluid and Broad Concept
A Definition
Geneticizations and Technology Assessment
Genetic Research
A Brief History of the Research in Genetics
An Overview of the Genetics Research Process
Ethical Issues Encountered During Each Research Process
Challenges to Our Understanding of Ourselves as Human Beings and Society
Genetics and Behavior
Historical Background
Behavior Genetics Today
Ethics and Human Behavior Genetics
Genetic Screening
Introduction: Genetic Screening
Criteria for the Introduction of Genetic Screening
Implementation and Quality Control
Rights to Know and not to Know
Information: Access and Control
Eugenics and Stigmatization
Genetic Technology, Legal Regulation of
International Regulation
National Regulation
Genome Analysis
Techniques of Analysis
The Human Genome Project
Unesco Declaration of the Protection of the Human Genome
The Human Genome Diversity Project
Hazardous and Toxic Substances
Nimby and Equality Issues
Consent Issues
Liability Issues
Ethical Rules for Behavior Under Certainty
Health and Disease, Concepts of
Concepts of Health and Their Impact
Articulating a Familty of Concepts: Constraints and Proposals
The Issue of Normativism
Health Technology Assessment
Ethics and Health Technology Assessment: The "Thin" Account
Ethics and Health Technology Assessment: The "Thick" Account
Human Nature, View of
The Philosophic and Practical Problem
Contemporary Applied Ethics and Views of Human Nature
View of Human Nature: Future Tasks
Human Research Subjects, Selection of
Scientific Issues
Ethical and Social Issues
Intrinsic and Instrumental Value
What is at Issue With "Intrinsic Value Versus Instrumental Value"?
What is to be Valued for Itself? (Normative Ethics)
Grounds or Limits for What is Valued for Itself (Meta-Ethics)
Are Values Being Instrumentalized? (The Critique of Instrumental Reason)
Life, Concept of
Introductory General Distinction
Empirical Characteristics of Life
Problems of a Plausible Definition of "Life"
Alternative Theories of Life: Vitalism Versus Mechanism
A Third Theory of Life: Organicism
Basic Theoretical Properties of Life
Practical Implications
Medical Futility
The Meaning of Medical Futility
Proposals for Resolving Disputes Over Medical Futility
Underlying Moral Debates About People's Quality of Life, Suffering, and the Best-Interests Standard
Novel Foods
Types of Novel Food
Regulation of Novel Foods
Ethical Concerns
GM Crops: Ethical Issues
GM Animal Foods: Specific Ethical Issues
Functional Foods: Ethical Issues
Steps to the Resolution of Ethical Debates
Nuclear Pwer
History of Nuclear Power
Two Ethical Frameworks for Evaluating Nuclear Power
Nuclear Power and the Naturalistic Fallacy
Nuclear Power and Uncertainty
Equity and Nuclear Risks
Consent and Nuclear Risks
Nuclear Power and Due Process
Nuclear Testing
Is the Use of Nuclear Weapons Permissible?
Is Nuclear Testing Dangerous?
Organ Transplants and Xenotransplantation
Live Human Donors
Cadaver Donors
Organ Transplants and Personal Identity
Playing God
Secular and Religious Applications
The Moral Presupposition
Applications in Bioethics
Applications in Genetics
Precautionary Principle
Legal Formulations: Strong and Weak
Wider Uses of the PP: "Waking Up in the Experiment"
Environmental Science and the PP
Precautionary Implications of Environmental Science
Is the Precautionary Principle a Scientific Principle?
The Precautionary Principle and the Status Quo
Reproductive Technologies
The Arguments for Art
The Arguments Against Art
Particular Ethical Problems
Science and Engineering Ethics, Overview
A Review of the Predisposing Salient Events
Toward a Definition of Science and Engineering Ethics
A Historical Perspective
Contemporary Issues
Slippery Slope Arguments
Types of Slippery Slope Arguments
Contexts of Application
Evaluating Validity and Plausibility
The Rhetorical Dimension: Practical Debates
The Sociological and Psychological Dimensions: Perceiving Reality
A Case Study: Euthanasia in the Netherlands
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