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How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education

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ISBN-10: 0073126543

ISBN-13: 9780073126548

Edition: 6th 2006 (Revised)

Authors: Jack R. Fraenkel, Norman E. Wallen

List price: $114.69
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Book details

List price: $114.69
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2006
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 620
Size: 8.25" wide x 10.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.146
Language: English

Preface
Introduction to Research
The Nature of Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
Some Examples of Educational Concerns
Why Research Is of Value
Ways of Knowing
Types of Research
General Research Types
Critical Analysis of Research
A Brief Overview of the Research Process
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
The Basics of Educational Research
The Research Problem
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is a Research Problem?
Research Questions
Characteristics of Good Research Questions
Research Questions Often Investigate Relationships
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Variables and Hypotheses
Interactive and Applied Learning
The Importance of Studying Relationships
Variables
Hypotheses
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Ethics and Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
Some Examples of Unethical Practice
A Statement of Ethical Principles
Protecting Participants from Harm
Ensuring Confidentiality of Research Data
Should Subjects Be Deceived?
Three Examples Involving Ethical Concerns
Research with Children
Regulation of Research
Main Points
For Discussion
Notes
Review of the Literature
Interactive and Applied Learning
The Value of a Literature Review
Types of Sources
Steps Involved in a Literature Search
Doing a Computer Search
Writing the Literature Review Report
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Sampling
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is a Sample?
Random Sampling Methods
Nonrandom Sampling Methods
A Review of Sampling Methods
Sample Size
External Validity: Generalizing from a Sample
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Instrumentation
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Are Data?
Means of Classifying Data-Collection Instruments
Examples of Data-Collection Instruments
Types of Scores
Norm-Referenced Versus Criterion-Referenced Instruments
Measurement Scales
Preparing Data for Analysis
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Validity and Reliability
Interactive and Applied Learning
The Importance of Valid Instruments
Validity
Reliability
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Internal Validity
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Internal Validity?
Threats to Internal Validity
How Can a Researcher Minimize These Threats to Internal Validity?
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Note
Data Analysis
Descriptive Statistics
Interactive and Applied Learning
Statistics Versus Parameters
Two Fundamental Types of Numerical Data
Techniques for Summarizing Quantitative Data
Techniques for Summarizing Categorical Data
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Inferential Statistics
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Are Inferential Statistics?
The Logic of Inferential Statistics
Hypothesis Testing
Practical Versus Statistical Significance
Inference Techniques
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Statistics in Perspective
Interactive and Applied Learning
Approaches to Research
Comparing Groups: Quantitative Data
Relating Variables within a Group: Quantitative Data
Comparing Groups: Categorical Data
Relating Variables within a Group: Categorical Data
A Recap of Recommendations
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Quantitative Research Methodologies
Experimental Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
The Uniqueness of Experimental Research
Essential Characteristics of Experimental Research
Control of Extraneous Variables
Group Designs in Experimental Research
Control of Threats to Internal Validity: A Summary
Evaluating the Likelihood of a Threat to Internal Validity in Experimental Studies
Control of Experimental Treatments
An Example of Experimental Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Single-Subject Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
Essential Characteristics of Single-Subject Research
Single-Subject Designs
Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Subject Research
An Example of Single-Subject Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Correlational Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
The Nature of Correlational Research
Purposes of Correlational Research
Basic Steps in Correlational Research
What Do Correlation Coefficients Tell Us?
Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Research
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Studies
An Example of Correlational Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Causal-Comparative Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Causal-Comparative Research?
Steps Involved in Causal-Comparative Research
Threats to Internal Validity in Causal-Comparative Research
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Causal-Comparative Studies
Data Analysis
Associations Between Categorical Variables
An Example of Causal-Comparative Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
For Discussion
Note
Survey Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is a Survey?
Why Are Surveys Conducted?
Types of Surveys
Survey Research and Correlational Research
Steps in Survey Research
Nonresponse
Problems in the Instrumentation Process in Survey Research
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Survey Research
Data Analysis in Survey Research
An Example of Survey Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Introduction to Qualitative Research
The Nature of Qualitative Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Qualitative Research?
General Characteristics of Qualitative Research
Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative Research
Postmodernism
Steps in Qualitative Research
Approaches to Qualitative Research
Generalization in Qualitative Research
Internal Validity in Qualitative Research
Ethics and Qualitative Research
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Reconsidered
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Observation and Interviewing
Interactive and Applied Learning
Observation
Interviewing
Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research
An Example of Qualitative Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Content Analysis
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Content Analysis?
Some Applications
Categorization in Content Analysis
Steps Involved in Content Analysis
An Illustration of Content Analysis
Using the Computer in Content Analysis
Advantages of Content Analysis
Disadvantages of Content Analysis
An Example of a Content Analysis Study
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Qualitative Research Methodologies
Ethnographic Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Ethnographic Research?
Ethnographic Concepts
Sampling in Ethnographic Research
Do Ethnographic Researchers Use Hypotheses?
Data Collection in Ethnographic Research
Data Analysis in Ethnographic Research
Roger Harker and His Fifth-Grade Classroom
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethnographic Research
An Example of Ethnographic Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Historical Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Historical Research?
Steps Involved in Historical Research
Data Analysis in Historical Research
Generalization in Historical Research
Advantages and Disadvantages of Historical Research
An Example of Historical Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Research by Practitioners
Action Research
Interactive and Applied Learning
What Is Action Research?
Types of Action Research
Steps in Action Research
Similarities and Differences Between Action Research and Formal Quantitative and Qualitative Research
The Advantages of Action Research
Some Hypothetical Examples of Practical Action Research
An Example of Action Research
A Published Example of Action Research
Research Report
Analysis of the Study
Main Points
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Writing Research Proposals and Reports
Preparing Research Proposals and Reports
Interactive and Applied Learning
The Research Proposal
The Major Sections of a Research Proposal or Report
Sections Unique to Research Reports
A Sample Research Proposal
Main Points
For Review
Key Terms
For Discussion
Notes
Appendixes
Portion of a Table of Random Numbers
Selected Values from a Normal Curve Table
Chi-Square Distribution
Using SPSS
Glossary
Index