Optical System Design

ISBN-10: 0071349162

ISBN-13: 9780071349161

Edition: 2000

List price: $105.00
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Based on a popular International Society for Optical Engineering (SPIE) professional education course; the lead author has taught for 20 years New to this edition: chapters on opto-mechanical design and stray-light suppression, and a completely rewritten diffractive optics chapter Includes computer-aided design examples and case studies in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more
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Book details

List price: $105.00
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Professional Publishing
Publication date: 6/30/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 559
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.838
Language: English

Robert Fischer is the president of Optics 1,Inc., and a past president of SPIE. Biljana Tadic-Galeb (Westlake Village, CA) is a senior optical staffengineer at Optics 1. Paul Yoder is a consultant specializing in optical andopto-mechanical design.

Biljana Tadic-Galeb is a Senior Staff Optical Engineer at OPTICS 1, Incorporated, of Westlake Village, California. She has BS in physics from the University of Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, and an MS in Optics from Reading University, England. She also holds an MS in Metrology from the University of Beograd, Yugoslavia. Ms. Tadic-Galeb has over 20 years of experience as an Optical Systems Engineer with specialties in the development of complex visible, ir, and uv optical systems, projections systems, laser systems, and hybrid systems with diffractive elements and fibers. She was recognized by the National Academy of Engineering in their Featured Women Engineers Program.

Prefacep. xiii
Basic Optics and Optical System Specificationsp. 1
The Purpose of an Imaging Optical Systemp. 2
How to Specify Your Optical System: Basic Parametersp. 3
Basic Definition of Termsp. 10
Useful First-Order Relationshipsp. 13
Stops, Pupils, and Other Basic Principlesp. 27
The Role of the Aperture Stopp. 28
Entrance and Exit Pupilsp. 28
Vignettingp. 30
Diffraction, Aberrations, and Image Qualityp. 35
What Image Quality Is All Aboutp. 36
What Are Geometrical Aberrations and Where Do They Come From?p. 37
What Is Diffraction?p. 41
Diffraction-Limited Performancep. 43
Derivation of System Specificationsp. 45
The Concept of Optical Path Differencep. 49
Optical Path Difference (OPD) and the Rayleigh Criteris?p. 50
Peak-to-Valley and RMS Wavefront Errorp. 52
The Wave Aberration Polynomialp. 55
Depth of Focusp. 56
Review of Specific Geometrical Aberrations and How to Get Rid of Themp. 61
Spherical Aberrationp. 63
Comap. 72
Astigmatismp. 76
Field Curvature and the Role of Field Lensesp. 78
Distortionp. 85
Axial Colorp. 88
Lateral Colorp. 90
Parametric Analysis of Aberrations Introduced by Plane Parallel Platesp. 90
Glass Selection (Including Plastics)p. 95
Material Properties Overviewp. 96
The Glass Map and Partial Dispersionp. 97
Parametric Examples of Glass Selectionp. 103
How to Select Glassp. 107
Plastic Optical Materialsp. 110
Spherical and Aspheric Surfacesp. 115
Definition of an Aspheric Surfacep. 116
Conic Surfacesp. 118
Application of Aspheric Surfaces in Reflective and Refractive Systemsp. 119
Guidelines in the Use of Aspheric Surfacesp. 124
Specifications of Aspheric Surfacesp. 127
Design Formsp. 129
Introductionp. 130
System Configurations for Refractive Systemsp. 131
System Configurations for Reflective Systemsp. 139
Reflective Systems, Relative Meritsp. 144
Refractive Systems, Relative Meritsp. 147
Mirrors and Prismsp. 147
Design of Visual Systemsp. 155
The Optical Design Processp. 167
What Do We Do When We Optimize a Lens System?p. 169
How Does the Designer Approach the Optical Design Task?p. 172
Sample Lens Design Problemp. 176
Computer Performance Evaluationp. 181
What Is Meant by Performance Evaluationp. 182
What Is Resolution?p. 182
Ray Trace Curvesp. 184
Spot Diagramsp. 190
Optical Path Differencep. 191
Encircled Energyp. 192
MTFp. 193
Gaussian Beam Imageryp. 203
Beam Waist and Beam Divergencep. 205
Collimation of Laser Beamsp. 207
Propagation of Gaussian Beams and Focusing into a Small Spotp. 208
Truncation of Gaussian Beamsp. 209
Application of Gaussian Beam Optics in Laser Systemsp. 212
F-[theta] Lenses in Laser Scannersp. 215
Basics of Thermal Infrared Imaging in the 3- to 5- and 8- to 12-[mu]m Spectral Bands (Plus UV Optics)p. 217
The Basics of Thermal Infrared Imagingp. 218
The Dewar, Cold Stop, and Cold Shieldp. 221
Cold Stop Efficiencyp. 223
Scanning Methodsp. 226
IR Materialsp. 233
Reduced Aberrations with IR Materialsp. 240
Image Anomaliesp. 244
Athermalizationp. 250
System Design Examplesp. 254
Optical Systems for the UVp. 259
Diffractive Opticsp. 263
Diffraction Grating, Volume Holographic Elements, Kinoforms, and Binary Surfacesp. 264
Diffraction Efficiencyp. 272
Achromatic Doublet and the Hybrid Refractive-Diffractive Achromatp. 275
Applications of Diffractive Optical Componentsp. 279
Parametric Examples of Diffractive Optics Designsp. 281
Summary of Diffractive Opticsp. 287
Design of Illumination Systemsp. 289
Introductionp. 290
Kohler and Abbe Illuminationp. 291
Optical Invariant and Etenduep. 292
Other Types of Illumination Systemsp. 296
Performance Evaluation and Optical Testingp. 301
Testing with the Standard 1951 U.S. Air Force Targetp. 302
The Modulation Transfer Functionp. 306
Interferometryp. 308
Other Testsp. 313
Tolerancing and Producibilityp. 315
Introductionp. 316
What Are Testplates and Why Are They Important?p. 317
How to Tolerance an Optical Systemp. 322
How Image Degradations from Different Tolerances Are Summedp. 325
Forms of Tolerancesp. 328
Adjusting Parametersp. 332
Typical Tolerances for Various Cost Modelsp. 334
Example of Tolerance Analysisp. 336
Surface Irregularitiesp. 342
How Does Correlation Relate to Performance?p. 345
Effect to Spot Diameterp. 346
Effect to MTF: The Optical Quality Factorp. 347
Beam Diameter and Surface Irregularityp. 350
The Final Resultsp. 352
Optical Manufacturing Considerationsp. 357
Materialp. 358
Manufacturingp. 364
Special Fabrication Considerationsp. 370
Relative Manufacturing Costp. 380
Sourcing Considerationsp. 380
Conclusionp. 383
Polarization Issues In Optical Designp. 387
Introductionp. 388
What Is Polarized Light?p. 388
Polarization Elementsp. 392
Mathematics of Polarized Lightp. 404
Polarization Aberrations and Polarization Ray Tracingp. 407
Geometrical Issues and the Maltese Crossp. 409
Stress Birefringencep. 412
Polarized Systems and Design Techniquesp. 413
Optical Thin Filmsp. 421
Introductionp. 422
Designing Optical Coatingsp. 423
Various Categories of Optical Coatingsp. 424
Optical Coating Processp. 430
Coating Performance Versus Number of Layersp. 435
Specifying Coating Requirementsp. 436
Relationship Between Production Cost, Tolerances, and Qualityp. 437
Hardware Design Issuesp. 439
Off-the-Shelf Opticsp. 440
How to Effectively Work with Off-the-Shelf Opticsp. 442
Working with Off-the-Shelf Singlets and Doubletsp. 443
Example of Lens Used at Conjugates Different from What It Was Designedp. 444
Pupil Matchingp. 445
Development of a Lab Mockup Using Off-the-Shelf Opticsp. 448
Stray Light Controlp. 448
Optomechanical Designp. 453
Lens Design Optimization Case Studiesp. 457
Error Function Constructionp. 458
Achromatic Doublet Lens Designp. 459
Double Gauss Lens Designp. 465
Digital Camera Lensp. 486
Binocular Designp. 494
Parametric Design Study of Simple Lenses Using Advanced Manufacturing Methodsp. 499
Design Data for Double Gaussp. 502
Bloopers and Blunders in Opticsp. 513
Distortion in a 1:1 Imaging Lensp. 514
Zoom Periscopep. 516
Sign of Distortionp. 516
Lens Elements That Are Not Necessaryp. 518
Pupil Problemsp. 519
Not Enough Lightp. 520
Athermalization Using Teflonp. 521
Athermalization Specificationsp. 521
Bad Glass Choicep. 521
Elements in Backwardsp. 522
Insufficient Sampling of Fields of View of Aperturep. 523
Images Upside Down or Rotatedp. 524
The Hubble Telescope Null Lens Problemp. 525
Rules of Thumb and Hintsp. 531
Glossaryp. 537
Bibliographyp. 547
Indexp. 551
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.
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