Invitation to Contemporary Physics

ISBN-10: 9812383034
ISBN-13: 9789812383037
Edition: 2nd 2004
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company, Incorporated
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 500
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

Preface
Symmetry of Nature and Nature of Symmetry
What Is Symmetry That We Should Be Mindful of It?
Space-Time Symmetries: Invariance and the Great Conservation Laws
Reflection Symmetry
Gauge Symmetry
Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB)
Summary
Further Reading
Lasers and Physics
Invitation to the New Optics
Conventional Light Sources
Light and Electromagnetic Radiation
Spontaneous Radiation
Summary
What is a Laser?
Stimulated Radiation
Laser Action
Laser Light
Summary
Types of Lasers
Solid-state Lasers
Gas Lasers
Semiconductor Lasers
All Those Other Lasers
Summary
Applications of Lasers
Optoelectronics
Optosurgery
Communications
Holography
Summary
Quantum Optics
Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy
Nonlinear Optics
Is Quantum Physics Real?
Summary
Looking Beyond
Further Reading
Problems
Superconductivity
Zero Electrical Resistance
Metallic Resistance
Superconductivity is Common
Infinite Magnetic Reluctance
Flux Trapping
Wholeness of Trapped Flux
Temperature and Phase Transition
Order Parameter
Free Energy and Entropy
Type I Superconductors
Type II Superconductors
The Critical Current
Understanding Superconductivity
Fermions
Bosons
Bose Condensation and Superfluidity
Phonon Mediated Attraction
Cooper Pairs and the BCS Theory
Some Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Flux Quantization Revisited
Josephson Tunneling and the Superconducting Interference
The Superconductor Comes out of the Cold
Summary
Further Reading
Bose-Einstein Condensate: Where Many Become One and How to Get There
Introduction
Bose Statistics: Counting of the Indistinguishables
Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC): The Over-Population Crisis
Cooling and Trapping of Atoms: Towards BEC
Laser Cooling and Magnetic Trapping: Down to Microkelvins
Doppler Limit and its Break-down
Trapping of Cold Atoms: Magentic and Magneto-Optic Trap (MOT)
Evaporative Cooling
BEC Finally: But How Do We Know?
BEC: What Good is it?
Summary
Further Reading
Exploring Nanostructures
Towards the Bottom
Summary
The Rise of Nanoscience
Summary
Confined Systems
Quantum Effects
How to Make them
Summary
Quantum Devices
Quantum Wells
Quantum Wires
Quantum Dots
Summary
The Genius of Carbon
Carbon Fullerenes
Carbon Nanotubes
Summary
Spintronics
Spin Flow
Principles of Spintronic Devices
Magnetic Recording
Data Storage and Processing by Spin
Summary
Nanos at Large
Summary
Further Reading
Problems
Quantum Computation and Information
Introduction
Summary
Classical Computers
Summary
Quantum Computers
Introduction
Multiple Qubits
Summary
Quantum Gates
Summary
Deutsch's Algorithm
Summary
Finding the Period of a Function
Introduction
Implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform
Period of the Function from the Fourier Transform
Summary
Shor's Factorization Algorithm
Summary
Grover's Search Algorithm
Summary
Hardware and Error Correction
Trapped Ions
Photons
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)
Other Systems
Summary
Cryptography
Private Key System
The RSA Public Key System
Summary
Quantum Teleportation
Summary
Further Reading
Problems
Chaos: Chance Out of Necessity
Introduction: Chaos Limits Prediction
The Butterfly Effect
Chaos is Common
Can Small be Chaotic?
Lesson of the Leaking Faucet
A Model for Chaos
The Logistic Map
Iteration of Map
The Period Doubling Bifurcation
Universality
Fully Developed Chaos
Poincare Sections: From Continuous Flows to Discrete Maps
Strange Attractors and Routes to Chaos
Stable Fixed Point
Limit Cycle
The Biperiodic Torus
The Strange Attractor
The Henon Attractor
The Lorenz Attractor
Routes to Chaos
Fractals and Strange Attractors
The Koch Snowflake
Cantor Dust
Reconstruction of the Strange Attractor from a Measured Signal: The Inverse Problem
Concluding Remarks: Harvesting Chaos
Summary
Further Reading
Bright Stars and Black Holes
The Basic Properties of Stars
Summary
The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Summary
Bright, Shining Stars
Nuclear Sources of Stellar Energy
On the Main Sequence
Solar Neutrinos
Post-Main-Sequence Evolution
Summary
White Dwarfs
Observations of White Dwarfs
Electron Degeneracy Pressure
Mass and Size
Luminosity
Summary
Neutron Stars
Formation and Structure
Solitary Neutron Stars
The Missing Pulsars
Neutron Stars in Binaries
Summary
Black Holes
Gravitational Collapse
Black Hole Dynamics
Searching for Black Holes
Summary
Further Reading
Problems
Elementary Particles and Forces
Elementary Constituents of Matter
Summary
Fundamental Forces
Summary
Theory of Forces
Range and Mass
Inverse-Square Law versus Confinement
Spin and the Nature of Forces
Energy and Force
Summary
Quantum Numbers and Symmetry
Vectorial Quantum Numbers
Symmetry and Conservation Laws
Isospin
Color
Vacuum Condensates
Space Reflection and Charge Conjugation
Summary
Standard Model
Electromagnetic Theory
Yang-Mills Theory
Electroweak Theory
Strong Interactions
Renormalization
Summary
Fermion Mixing
Quarks
Leptons
Neutrino Oscillations
Summary
Outlook
Grand Unified Theories
Supersymmetry
Extra Dimensions
Superstring and M Theories
Summary
Further Reading
Problems
Cosmology
Hubble's Law
Velocity Measurements
Astronomical Distances
Summary
The Big Bang
Summary
After the Big Bang
Gravity and Pressure
The Red-Shift Factor in an Expanding Universe
The Accelerating Universe
The Critical Universe
The Dynamics
Summary
Before the Big Bang
Problems of the Classical Big Bang Theory
The Theory of Inflation
Summary
Thermal Physics
Equipartition of Energy
Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's Laws
Baryogenesis
Relativistic Electrons and Neutrinos
Summary
MeV Temperatures
Neutrino Decoupling
Electron-Positron Annihilation
Temperature and Time
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
Summary
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
Observation
The Physics of CMB
Summary
Further Reading
Problems
General Concepts in Classical Physics
The Physical Universe
Matter and Motion
Waves and Fields
General Concepts in Quantum Physics
Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle
Wave Function and Probability: State of the System
Superposition of States and Wave Interference
Indistinguishability of Identical Particles
Quantum Mechanics and Naive Realism
Thermal Physics and Statistical Mechanics
Thermodynamics
Statistical Mechanics
Dimensional Analysis
Solutions to Problems
Glossary

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