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Preface | |

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Symmetry of Nature and Nature of Symmetry | |

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What Is Symmetry That We Should Be Mindful of It? | |

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Space-Time Symmetries: Invariance and the Great Conservation Laws | |

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Reflection Symmetry | |

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Gauge Symmetry | |

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Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (SSB) | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Lasers and Physics | |

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Invitation to the New Optics | |

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Conventional Light Sources | |

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Light and Electromagnetic Radiation | |

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Spontaneous Radiation | |

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Summary | |

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What is a Laser? | |

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Stimulated Radiation | |

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Laser Action | |

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Laser Light | |

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Summary | |

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Types of Lasers | |

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Solid-state Lasers | |

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Gas Lasers | |

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Semiconductor Lasers | |

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All Those Other Lasers | |

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Summary | |

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Applications of Lasers | |

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Optoelectronics | |

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Optosurgery | |

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Communications | |

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Holography | |

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Summary | |

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Quantum Optics | |

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Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy | |

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Nonlinear Optics | |

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Is Quantum Physics Real? | |

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Summary | |

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Looking Beyond | |

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Further Reading | |

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Problems | |

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Superconductivity | |

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Zero Electrical Resistance | |

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Metallic Resistance | |

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Superconductivity is Common | |

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Infinite Magnetic Reluctance | |

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Flux Trapping | |

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Wholeness of Trapped Flux | |

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Temperature and Phase Transition | |

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Order Parameter | |

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Free Energy and Entropy | |

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Type I Superconductors | |

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Type II Superconductors | |

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The Critical Current | |

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Understanding Superconductivity | |

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Fermions | |

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Bosons | |

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Bose Condensation and Superfluidity | |

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Phonon Mediated Attraction | |

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Cooper Pairs and the BCS Theory | |

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Some Macroscopic Quantum Effects | |

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Flux Quantization Revisited | |

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Josephson Tunneling and the Superconducting Interference | |

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The Superconductor Comes out of the Cold | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Bose-Einstein Condensate: Where Many Become One and How to Get There | |

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Introduction | |

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Bose Statistics: Counting of the Indistinguishables | |

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Bose-Einstein Condensation (BEC): The Over-Population Crisis | |

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Cooling and Trapping of Atoms: Towards BEC | |

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Laser Cooling and Magnetic Trapping: Down to Microkelvins | |

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Doppler Limit and its Break-down | |

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Trapping of Cold Atoms: Magentic and Magneto-Optic Trap (MOT) | |

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Evaporative Cooling | |

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BEC Finally: But How Do We Know? | |

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BEC: What Good is it? | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Exploring Nanostructures | |

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Towards the Bottom | |

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Summary | |

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The Rise of Nanoscience | |

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Summary | |

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Confined Systems | |

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Quantum Effects | |

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How to Make them | |

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Summary | |

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Quantum Devices | |

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Quantum Wells | |

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Quantum Wires | |

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Quantum Dots | |

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Summary | |

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The Genius of Carbon | |

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Carbon Fullerenes | |

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Carbon Nanotubes | |

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Summary | |

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Spintronics | |

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Spin Flow | |

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Principles of Spintronic Devices | |

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Magnetic Recording | |

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Data Storage and Processing by Spin | |

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Summary | |

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Nanos at Large | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Problems | |

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Quantum Computation and Information | |

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Introduction | |

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Summary | |

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Classical Computers | |

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Summary | |

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Quantum Computers | |

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Introduction | |

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Multiple Qubits | |

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Summary | |

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Quantum Gates | |

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Summary | |

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Deutsch's Algorithm | |

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Summary | |

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Finding the Period of a Function | |

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Introduction | |

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Implementing a Quantum Fourier Transform | |

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Period of the Function from the Fourier Transform | |

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Summary | |

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Shor's Factorization Algorithm | |

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Summary | |

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Grover's Search Algorithm | |

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Summary | |

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Hardware and Error Correction | |

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Trapped Ions | |

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Photons | |

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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) | |

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Other Systems | |

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Summary | |

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Cryptography | |

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Private Key System | |

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The RSA Public Key System | |

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Summary | |

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Quantum Teleportation | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Problems | |

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Chaos: Chance Out of Necessity | |

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Introduction: Chaos Limits Prediction | |

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The Butterfly Effect | |

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Chaos is Common | |

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Can Small be Chaotic? | |

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Lesson of the Leaking Faucet | |

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A Model for Chaos | |

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The Logistic Map | |

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Iteration of Map | |

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The Period Doubling Bifurcation | |

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Universality | |

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Fully Developed Chaos | |

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Poincare Sections: From Continuous Flows to Discrete Maps | |

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Strange Attractors and Routes to Chaos | |

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Stable Fixed Point | |

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Limit Cycle | |

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The Biperiodic Torus | |

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The Strange Attractor | |

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The Henon Attractor | |

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The Lorenz Attractor | |

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Routes to Chaos | |

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Fractals and Strange Attractors | |

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The Koch Snowflake | |

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Cantor Dust | |

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Reconstruction of the Strange Attractor from a Measured Signal: The Inverse Problem | |

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Concluding Remarks: Harvesting Chaos | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Bright Stars and Black Holes | |

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The Basic Properties of Stars | |

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Summary | |

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The Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram | |

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Summary | |

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Bright, Shining Stars | |

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Nuclear Sources of Stellar Energy | |

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On the Main Sequence | |

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Solar Neutrinos | |

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Post-Main-Sequence Evolution | |

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Summary | |

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White Dwarfs | |

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Observations of White Dwarfs | |

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Electron Degeneracy Pressure | |

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Mass and Size | |

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Luminosity | |

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Summary | |

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Neutron Stars | |

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Formation and Structure | |

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Solitary Neutron Stars | |

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The Missing Pulsars | |

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Neutron Stars in Binaries | |

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Summary | |

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Black Holes | |

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Gravitational Collapse | |

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Black Hole Dynamics | |

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Searching for Black Holes | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Problems | |

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Elementary Particles and Forces | |

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Elementary Constituents of Matter | |

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Summary | |

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Fundamental Forces | |

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Summary | |

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Theory of Forces | |

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Range and Mass | |

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Inverse-Square Law versus Confinement | |

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Spin and the Nature of Forces | |

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Energy and Force | |

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Summary | |

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Quantum Numbers and Symmetry | |

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Vectorial Quantum Numbers | |

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Symmetry and Conservation Laws | |

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Isospin | |

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Color | |

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Vacuum Condensates | |

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Space Reflection and Charge Conjugation | |

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Summary | |

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Standard Model | |

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Electromagnetic Theory | |

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Yang-Mills Theory | |

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Electroweak Theory | |

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Strong Interactions | |

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Renormalization | |

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Summary | |

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Fermion Mixing | |

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Quarks | |

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Leptons | |

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Neutrino Oscillations | |

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Summary | |

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Outlook | |

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Grand Unified Theories | |

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Supersymmetry | |

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Extra Dimensions | |

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Superstring and M Theories | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Problems | |

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Cosmology | |

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Hubble's Law | |

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Velocity Measurements | |

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Astronomical Distances | |

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Summary | |

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The Big Bang | |

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Summary | |

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After the Big Bang | |

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Gravity and Pressure | |

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The Red-Shift Factor in an Expanding Universe | |

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The Accelerating Universe | |

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The Critical Universe | |

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The Dynamics | |

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Summary | |

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Before the Big Bang | |

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Problems of the Classical Big Bang Theory | |

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The Theory of Inflation | |

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Summary | |

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Thermal Physics | |

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Equipartition of Energy | |

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Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien's Laws | |

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Baryogenesis | |

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Relativistic Electrons and Neutrinos | |

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Summary | |

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MeV Temperatures | |

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Neutrino Decoupling | |

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Electron-Positron Annihilation | |

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Temperature and Time | |

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Big Bang Nucleosynthesis | |

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Summary | |

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The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) | |

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Observation | |

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The Physics of CMB | |

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Summary | |

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Further Reading | |

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Problems | |

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General Concepts in Classical Physics | |

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The Physical Universe | |

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Matter and Motion | |

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Waves and Fields | |

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General Concepts in Quantum Physics | |

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Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle | |

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Wave Function and Probability: State of the System | |

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Superposition of States and Wave Interference | |

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Indistinguishability of Identical Particles | |

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Quantum Mechanics and Naive Realism | |

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Thermal Physics and Statistical Mechanics | |

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Thermodynamics | |

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Statistical Mechanics | |

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Dimensional Analysis | |

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Solutions to Problems | |

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Glossary | |