Signals and Systems for Speech and Hearing Second Edition

ISBN-10: 9004252436
ISBN-13: 9789004252431
Edition: 2013
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Book details

Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: BRILL
Publication date: 4/5/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 364
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.628
Language: English

Peter Howell works at the Oxford Centre for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, a research centre within the Mathematical Institute of Oxford University.

Preface
Preface to the Original Edition
Introduction
Exercises
Signals in the Real World
The movement of a tuning fork
What is sound?
Converting pressure changes into a more convenient form
Getting back to acoustic signals
Summary
Exercises
Introduction to Signals
Frequency and period of sinusoids
Constructing sinusoids
Using trigonometry to determine the shape of a sinusoid
Phase
Amplitude
Examples of other periodic signals
Aperiodic signals
Peak-to-peak and root-mean-square amplitude measurements
Measuring amplitude;-the relationship between amplitude and intensity
Defining scales
Definition of the intensity scale-dB values
Scale reference points
Taking the logarithm of the ratio
Further features of dB scales
Exercises
Appendix: Exponents and logarithms (to the base 10)
Introduction to Systems
Homogeneity
Additivity
Linearity = homogeneity + additivity
Time invariance
Exercises
A Preview
Exercises
The Frequency Response of Systems
Amplitude responses-the basic concept
Amplitude responses as ratios
Filters
Systems in parallel
Systems in cascade
Band-pass filters
Band-pass responses in simple physical systems
The amplitude response of a cascade of LTI systems
The vocal tract as a linear system
Phase responses
Linear phase responses
Wrapped and unwrapped phase curves
Other phase responses
The phase response of two LTI systems in cascade
The transfer function of LTI systems in cascade
Exercises
Appendix 6.1
Appendix 6.2
Appendix 6.3
The Frequency Characterization of Signals
Adding sinusoids: synthesis
Decomposing periodic waveforms: analysis
The Fourier series of a sawtooth waveform
Amplitude spectrum of a sawtooth wave
Phase spectrum of a sawtooth waveform
The effect of altering the phase of one component
The effect of altering the amplitude of one component
The effect of missing one component out
Spectra of other periodic waveforms
The spectrum of a pulse train
The effect of increasing period with the same duration pulse
Spectra of aperiodic signals
Fourier transform of a transient signal
Random signals
Exercises
Signals Through Systems
Furring a periodic signal through a filter
Speeding things up
Putting a periodic signal through a real low-pass filter
Putting an aperiodic signal through a system
Distortion and the perfect system
Exercises
The Time Characterization of Systems
What can we learn from a system response to a single pulse?
Approximating signals with rectangular pulses
The relationship between the impulse response and the frequency response
Determining the frequency response of a system: a practical example
Exercises
The Relationship Between the Time and Frequency Domains
The spectra of rectangular pulses of varying duration
The spectra of sinusoids of varying duration
'Windowing' signals
'Windowing' non-sinusoidal signals
The relationship between the ordinary and inverse Fourier transform
Time domain and frequency domain relationships for systems
The impulse and amplitude response of simple band-pass filters
Resolution in frequency for different bandwidths
Resolution in time for different bandwidths
Bandwidth versus resolution: a summary
Exercises
The Spectrogram
The basic problem: determining the spectra of real-life signals
Analyzing a sawtooth with a filter bank
Signals that change in time
Whistling through a single band-pass filter
Getting rid of detail: rectification and smoothing
Summary: filtering, rectification and smoothing
Looking across a range of frequencies with a filter bank
Constructing a spectrogram
Displaying spectrograms in a convenient way
Spectrographs
Another approach to making a spectrogram
The graphic equalizer
A spectrum displayed as a bar graph
Converting the height of a bar into the darkness of a trace
Converting the time dimension into the x-axis on a piece of paper
Sections: short-term spectra
The choice of filter bandwidth
Determining a spectrum with filter banks of wide- and narrow-band filters
Resolving two spectral components close in frequency
Wide- and narrow-band spectrograms of an impulse
Resolving two pulses close in time
Wide- and narrow-band spectrograms of quasi-periodic pulse trains
Wide- and narrow-band spectrograms of random signals
Making spectrograms in the time domain
Dividing up a signal into sections
The choice of window length
Analyzing a sinusoid with different window lengths
Long- and short-time spectrograms of two closely spaced sinusoids
Long- and short-time spectrograms of a filtered periodic pulse train
Frequency equalization
Concluding remarks
Exercises
Applications to Hearing
Outer ear
Middle ear
The movement of the basilar membrane
Transduction by the inner hair cells
Making an auditory spectrogram
Exercises
Applications to Speech Production
Source-filter theory of speech production
Amplitude spectrum off /∂/ at a constant voice fundamental frequency
Amplitude spectrum of /∂/ at a different voice fundamental frequency
Spectrographs representation of /∂/ at different voice fundamental frequencies
Spectrographs analysis of vowels with a changing fundamental
Properties of other vowel sounds
Diphthongal vowels
Voiceless fricatives
Summary and comments
Exercises
An Introduction to Digital Signals and Systems
Pros and cons of digital techniques
What is an analogue signal?
What is a digital signal?
Digital systems
Quantization
Sampling
How fast does sampling have to be? The sampling theorem
Sampling complex signals
Processing the digital signal
Reconverting back to analogue form
A digital amplifier
A simple digital low-pass filter
A simple digital high-pass filter
A simple infinite impulse response system
FIR and IIR systems
Concluding remarks
Exercises
Appendix
Index

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