Introduction to the Physiology of Hearing Fourth Edition

ISBN-10: 9004243771
ISBN-13: 9789004243774
Edition: 2013
Authors: James Pickles
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Book details

List price: $81.00
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: BRILL
Publication date: 4/5/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 436
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 0.80" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

Preface to the fourth edition
From the Preface to the first edition
Abbreviations
Reading plan
The physics and analysis of sound
The nature of sound
The decibel scale
Impedance
The analysis of sound
Linearity
Summary
The outer and middle ears
The outer ear
The pressure gain of the outer ear
The outer ear as an aid to sound localization
The middle ear
Introduction
The middle ear as an impedance transformer
The middle ear muscles
Summary
Further reading
The cochlea
Anatomy
General anatomy
The organ of Corti
The innervation of the organ of Corti
The mechanics of the cochlea
The travelling wave
Current measurements of the travelling wave
Theories of cochlear mechanics
The fluid spaces of the cochlea
The endolymphatic and perilymphatic spaces
The endolymph
The perilymph
Hair cell responses
Hair cell responses in vitro
Inner hair cell responses in vivo
Outer hair cell responses in vivo
The gross evoked potentials
The cochlear microphonic
The summating potential
The gross neural potentials
Summary
Further reading
The auditory nerve
Anatomy
Physiology
Response to tones
Response to clicks
Frequency resolution as a function of intensity and type of stimulation
Response to complex stimuli
Summary
Further reading
Mechanisms of transduction and excitation in the cochlea
Introduction
The structure of the transducer region
Stereocilia and cuticular plate
The cross-linking of stereocilia
The mechanotransducer channels
The electrophysiological analysis of mechanotransduction
Cell membrane potentials
Mechanotransduction
The origin of sharp tuning in the cochlea
Is an active process necessary theoretically?
Models incorporating an active mechanical process
Outer hair cells: needed for low thresholds and sharp tuning
Active mechanical processes in the cochlea: cochlear emissions
Motility in outer hair cells
Cochlear micromechanics
Conclusions on cochlear mechanical amplification
Hair cells and neural excitation
Stimulus coupling to inner and outer hair cells
Activation of auditory nerve fibres
Neurotransmitter release
Cochlear non-linearity
The non-linear growth of cochlear responses
Two-tone suppression
Combination tones
Summary
Further reading
The subcortical nuclei
Considerations in studying the auditory central nervous system
The cochlear nuclei
Output pathways
Input pathways
The ventral binaural sound localization stream: the bushy cells of the anteroventral and posteroventral cochlear nucleus
Cells of the posteroventral cochlear nucleus: contributions to both binaural localization and to identification
The dorsal cochlear nucleus: sound identification and localization in the vertical plane
Excitation and inhibition in the cochlear nucleus
Functions of the cochlear nucleus
The superior olivary complex
Innervation and overall anatomy
The ventral sound localization stream: comparing the intensities of the stimuli at the two ears
The ventral sound localization stream: comparing the timing of the stimuli at the two ears
Summary of role of superior olivary complex in sound localization
Ascending pathways of the brainstem and the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus
The ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
The dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus
The inferior colliculus
General anatomy
The central nucleus
The external nucleus and dorsal cortex
The medial geniculate body
Overall anatomy and inputs
The ventral nucleus
The medial and dorsal nuclei
Brainstem reflexes
Middle ear muscle reflex
Acoustic startle
Orientation
Audiogenic seizures
Summary
Further reading
The auditory cortex
Organization
Anatomy and projections
Tonotopic organization
Organization along the frequency-band strips
The responses of single neurones
Responses in the core
Responses in the belt
Cortical processing of sound location
Behavioural experiments
Electrophysiological responses
Cortical processing and stimulus complexity
Behavioural experiments
Physiological responses
Overview of functions of the auditory cortex
Summary
Further reading
The centrifugal pathways
Introduction
The olivocochlear bundle
Anatomy
Neurotransmitters
Physiology and function
Centrifugal pathways to the cochlear nuclei
Anatomy
Neurotransmitters
Physiology and function
Centrifugal pathways in higher centres
Anatomy
Physiology and function
Summary
Further reading
Physiological correlates of auditory psychophysics and performance
Introduction
The absolute threshold
Frequency resolution
A review of the psychophysics of frequency resolution
Quantitative relations between psychophysics and physiology in frequency resolution
Frequency resolution in the auditory central nervous system
Co-modulation masking release: analysis across fitters
Frequency discrimination
Place and time coding
A psychophysical model for pitch perception and its relation to physiology
Intensity and loudness
Stimulus coding as a function of intensity
Loudness
Sound localization and spatial hearing
Introduction
Mechanisms of sound localization
Spatial release from masking and the binaural masking level difference
Speech
What is special about speech?
Auditory nerve and brainstem responses
Cortical responses to vocalizations in non-human species
Responses to speech in the human cortex
Summary
Further reading
Sensorineural hearing loss
Types of hearing loss
Sensorineural hearing loss of cochlear origin: mechanisms of pathology
Ototoxicity
Acoustic trauma
Genetic causes
Ageing
Sensorineural hearing loss of cochlear origin: functional changes
Physiological changes
Psychophysical correlates
Physiological aspects of the cochlear prosthesis
Introduction
Physiological background
Results
Cellular replacement, protection and gene therapy in the inner ear
Introduction
Production of new hair cells by transdifferentiation of supporting cells
Production of new hair cells by mitosis in the mammalian cochlea
Gene therapy
Stem cell therapy
Cell protection
Summary
Further reading
References
Index

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