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Introduction | |

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The Roots of Plasma Physics | |

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The Plasma Environment of Our Earth | |

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The Energy Source of Stars | |

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The Active Sun | |

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The Solar Wind | |

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Earth's Magnetosphere and Ionosphere | |

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Gas Discharges | |

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Lighting | |

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Plasma Displays | |

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Dusty Plasmas | |

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Controlled Nuclear Fusion | |

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A Particle Accelerator Makes No Fusion Reactor | |

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Magnetic Confinement in Tokamaks | |

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Experiments with D-T Mixtures | |

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The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor | |

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Stellarators | |

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Inertial Confinement Fusion | |

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Challenges of Plasma Physics | |

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Outline of the Book | |

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Definition of the Plasma State | |

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States of Matter | |

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The Boltzmann Distribution | |

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The Saha Equation | |

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The Coupling Parameter | |

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Collective Behavior of a Plasma | |

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Debye Shielding | |

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Quasineutrality | |

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Response Time and Plasma Frequency | |

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Existence Regimes | |

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Strong-Coupling Limit | |

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Quantum Effects | |

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Problems | |

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Single Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields | |

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Motion in Static Electric and Magnetic Fields | |

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Basic Equations | |

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Cyclotron Frequencies | |

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The Earth Magnetic Field | |

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Eï¿½B Drift | |

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Gravitational Drift | |

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Application: Confinement of Nonneutral Plasmas | |

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The Drift Approximation | |

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The Concept of a Guiding Center | |

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Gradient Drift | |

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Curvature Drift | |

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The Toroidal Drift | |

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The Magnetic Mirror | |

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Longitudinal Gradient | |

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Magnetic Moment | |

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Adiabatic Invariants | |

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The Magnetic Moment as First Invariant | |

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The Mirror Effect | |

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The Longitudinal and the Flux Invariant | |

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Time-Varying Fields | |

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The Polarization Drift | |

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Time-Varying Magnetic field | |

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Toroidal Magnetic Confinement | |

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The Tokamak Principle | |

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The Stellarator Principle | |

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Rotational Transform | |

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Electron Motion in an Inhomogeneous Oscillating Electric Field | |

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The Ponderomotive Force | |

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Problems | |

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Stochastic Processes in a Plasma | |

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The Velocity Distribution | |

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The Maxwell Velocity Distribution in One Dimension | |

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The Maxwell Distribution of Speeds | |

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Moments of the Distribution Function | |

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Distribution of Particle Energies | |

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Collisions | |

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Cross Section | |

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Mean Free Path and Collision Frequency | |

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Rate Coefficients | |

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Inelastic Collisions | |

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Coulomb Collisions | |

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Transport | |

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Mobility and Drift Velocity | |

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Electrical Conductivity | |

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Diffusion | |

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Motion in Magnetic Fields in the Presence of Collisions | |

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Application: Cross-Field Motion in a Hall Ion Thruster | |

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Heat Balance of Plasmas | |

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Electron Heating in a Gas Discharge | |

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Ignition of a Fusion Reaction: The Lawson Criterion | |

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Inertial Confinement Fusion | |

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Problems | |

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Fluid Models | |

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The Two-Fluid Model | |

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Maxwell's Equations | |

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The Concept of a Fluid Description | |

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The Continuity Equation | |

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Momentum Transport | |

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Shear Flows | |

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Magnetohydrostatics | |

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Isobaric Surfaces | |

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Magnetic Pressure | |

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Diamagnetic Drift | |

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Magnetohydrodynamics | |

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The Generalized Ohm's Law | |

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Diffusion of a Magnetic Field | |

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The Frozen-in Magnetic Flux | |

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The Pinch Effect | |

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Application: Alfvï¿½n Waves | |

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Application: The Parker Spiral | |

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Problems | |

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Plasma Waves | |

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Maxwell's Equations and the Wave Equation | |

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Basic Concepts | |

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Fourier Representation | |

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Dielectric or Conducting Media | |

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Phase Velocity | |

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Wave Packet and Group Velocity | |

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Refractive Index | |

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The General Dispersion Relation | |

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Waves in Unmagnetized Plasmas | |

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Electromagnetic Waves | |

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The Influence of Collisions | |

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Interferometry with Microwaves and Lasers | |

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Mach-Zehnder Interferometer | |

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Folded Michelson Interferometer | |

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The Second-Harmonic Interferometer | |

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Plasma-Filled Microwave Cavities | |

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Electrostatic Waves | |

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The Longitudinal Mode | |

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Bohm-Gross Waves | |

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Ion-Acoustic Waves | |

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Waves in Magnetized Plasmas | |

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The Dielectric Tensor | |

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Circularly Polarized Modes and the Faraday Effect | |

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Propagation Across the Magnetic Field | |

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Resonance Cones | |

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Problems | |

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Plasma Boundaries | |

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The Space-Charge Sheath | |

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The Child-Langmuir Law | |

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The Bohm Criterion | |

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Stability Analysis | |

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The Bohm Criterion Imposed by the Sheath | |

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The Bohm Criterion as Seen from the Presheath | |

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The Plane Langmuir Probe | |

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The Ion Saturation Current | |

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The Electron Saturation Current | |

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The Electron Retardation Current | |

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The Floating Potential | |

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Advanced Langmuir Probe Methods | |

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The Druyvesteyn Method | |

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A Practical Realization of the Druyvesteyn Technique | |

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Double Probes | |

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Orbital Motion about Cylindrical and Spherical Probes | |

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Application: Ion Extraction From Plasmas | |

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Double Layers | |

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Langmuir's Strong Double Layer | |

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Experimental Evidence of Double Layers | |

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Problems | |

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Instabilities | |

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Beam-Plasma Instability | |

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Non-Thermal Distribution Functions | |

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Dispersion of the Beam-Plasma Modes | |

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Growth Rate for a Weak Beam | |

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Why is the Slow Space-Charge Wave Unstable? | |

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Temporal or Spatial Growth | |

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Buneman Instability | |

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Dielectric Function | |

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Instability Analysis | |

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Beam Instability in Finite Systems | |

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Geometry of the Pierce Diode | |

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The Dispersion Relation for a Free Electron Beam | |

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The Influence of the Boundaries | |

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The Pierce Modes | |

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Discussion of the Pierce Model | |

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Macroscopic Instabilities | |

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Stable Magnetic Configurations | |

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Pinch Instabilities | |

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Rayleigh-Taylor Instability | |

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Problems | |

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Kinetic Description of Plasmas | |

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The Vlasov Model | |

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Heuristic Derivation of the Vlasov Equation | |

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The Vlasov Equation | |

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Properties of the Vlasov Equation | |

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Relation Between the Vlasov Equation and Fluid Models | |

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Application to Current Flow in Diodes | |

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Construction of the Distribution Function | |

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Virtual Cathode and Current Continuity | |

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Finding a Self-Consistent Solution | |

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Discussion of Numerical Solutions | |

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Kinetic Effects in Electrostatic Waves | |

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Electrostatic Electron Waves | |

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The Meaning of Cold, Warm and Hot Plasma | |

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Landau Damping | |

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Damping of Ion-Acoustic Waves | |

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A Physical Picture of Landau Damping | |

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Plasma Wave Echoes | |

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No Simple Route to Landau Damping | |

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Plasma Simulation with Particle Codes | |

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The Particle-in-Cell Algorithm | |

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Phase-Space Representation | |

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Instability Saturation by Trapping | |

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Current Flow in Bounded Plasmas | |

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Problems | |

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Dusty Plasmas | |

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Charging of Dust Particles | |

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Secondary Emission | |

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Photoemission | |

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Charge Collection | |

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Charging Time | |

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Charge Fluctuations | |

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Influence of Dust Density on Dust Charge | |

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Forces on Dust Particles | |

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Levitation and Confinement | |

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Neutral Drag Force | |

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Thermophoretic Force | |

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Ion Wind Forces | |

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Interparticle Forces | |

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Plasma Crystals | |

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Experimental Observations | |

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The Role of Ion Wakes | |

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Coulomb and Yukawa Balls | |

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A Simple Model for the Structure of Yukawa Balls | |

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Waves in Dusty Plasmas | |

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Compressional and Shear Waves in Monolayers | |

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Spectral Energy Density of Waves | |

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Dust Density Waves | |

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Concluding Remarks | |

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Problems | |

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Plasma Generation | |

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DC-Discharges | |

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Types of Low Pressure Discharges | |

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Regions in a Glow Discharge | |

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Processes in the Cathode Region | |

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The Hollow Cathode Effect | |

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Thermionic Emitters | |

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The Negative Glow | |

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The Positive Column | |

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Similarity Laws | |

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Discharge Modes of Thermionic Discharges | |

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Capacitive Radio-Frequency Discharges | |

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The Impedance of the Bulk Plasma | |

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Sheath Expansion | |

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Electron Energetics | |

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Self Bias | |

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Application: Anisotropic Etching of Silicon | |

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Inductively Coupled Plasmas | |

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The Skin Effect | |

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E and H-Mode | |

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The Equivalent Circuit for an ICP | |

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Concluding Remark | |

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Problems | |

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Glossary | |

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Appendix: Constants and Formulas | |

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Physical Constants | |

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List of Useful Formulas | |

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Lengths | |

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Frequencies | |

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Velocities | |

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Useful Mathematics | |

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Vector Relations | |

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Matrices and Tensors | |

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The Theorems of Gauss and Stokes | |

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Solutions | |

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References | |

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Name Index | |

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Subject Index | |