Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

ISBN-10: 3642104908
ISBN-13: 9783642104909
Edition: 2010
Authors: Alexander Piel
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Description: This book is written by an experimentalist & covers all aspects of plasma physics at an introductory level. The fundamental concepts of plasma description are developed in a bottom-up approach of increasing mathematical complexity.

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Book details

Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 6/28/2010
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 398
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.540
Language: English

This book is written by an experimentalist & covers all aspects of plasma physics at an introductory level. The fundamental concepts of plasma description are developed in a bottom-up approach of increasing mathematical complexity.

Introduction
The Roots of Plasma Physics
The Plasma Environment of Our Earth
The Energy Source of Stars
The Active Sun
The Solar Wind
Earth's Magnetosphere and Ionosphere
Gas Discharges
Lighting
Plasma Displays
Dusty Plasmas
Controlled Nuclear Fusion
A Particle Accelerator Makes No Fusion Reactor
Magnetic Confinement in Tokamaks
Experiments with D-T Mixtures
The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor
Stellarators
Inertial Confinement Fusion
Challenges of Plasma Physics
Outline of the Book
Definition of the Plasma State
States of Matter
The Boltzmann Distribution
The Saha Equation
The Coupling Parameter
Collective Behavior of a Plasma
Debye Shielding
Quasineutrality
Response Time and Plasma Frequency
Existence Regimes
Strong-Coupling Limit
Quantum Effects
Problems
Single Particle Motion in Electric and Magnetic Fields
Motion in Static Electric and Magnetic Fields
Basic Equations
Cyclotron Frequencies
The Earth Magnetic Field
E�B Drift
Gravitational Drift
Application: Confinement of Nonneutral Plasmas
The Drift Approximation
The Concept of a Guiding Center
Gradient Drift
Curvature Drift
The Toroidal Drift
The Magnetic Mirror
Longitudinal Gradient
Magnetic Moment
Adiabatic Invariants
The Magnetic Moment as First Invariant
The Mirror Effect
The Longitudinal and the Flux Invariant
Time-Varying Fields
The Polarization Drift
Time-Varying Magnetic field
Toroidal Magnetic Confinement
The Tokamak Principle
The Stellarator Principle
Rotational Transform
Electron Motion in an Inhomogeneous Oscillating Electric Field
The Ponderomotive Force
Problems
Stochastic Processes in a Plasma
The Velocity Distribution
The Maxwell Velocity Distribution in One Dimension
The Maxwell Distribution of Speeds
Moments of the Distribution Function
Distribution of Particle Energies
Collisions
Cross Section
Mean Free Path and Collision Frequency
Rate Coefficients
Inelastic Collisions
Coulomb Collisions
Transport
Mobility and Drift Velocity
Electrical Conductivity
Diffusion
Motion in Magnetic Fields in the Presence of Collisions
Application: Cross-Field Motion in a Hall Ion Thruster
Heat Balance of Plasmas
Electron Heating in a Gas Discharge
Ignition of a Fusion Reaction: The Lawson Criterion
Inertial Confinement Fusion
Problems
Fluid Models
The Two-Fluid Model
Maxwell's Equations
The Concept of a Fluid Description
The Continuity Equation
Momentum Transport
Shear Flows
Magnetohydrostatics
Isobaric Surfaces
Magnetic Pressure
Diamagnetic Drift
Magnetohydrodynamics
The Generalized Ohm's Law
Diffusion of a Magnetic Field
The Frozen-in Magnetic Flux
The Pinch Effect
Application: Alfv�n Waves
Application: The Parker Spiral
Problems
Plasma Waves
Maxwell's Equations and the Wave Equation
Basic Concepts
Fourier Representation
Dielectric or Conducting Media
Phase Velocity
Wave Packet and Group Velocity
Refractive Index
The General Dispersion Relation
Waves in Unmagnetized Plasmas
Electromagnetic Waves
The Influence of Collisions
Interferometry with Microwaves and Lasers
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer
Folded Michelson Interferometer
The Second-Harmonic Interferometer
Plasma-Filled Microwave Cavities
Electrostatic Waves
The Longitudinal Mode
Bohm-Gross Waves
Ion-Acoustic Waves
Waves in Magnetized Plasmas
The Dielectric Tensor
Circularly Polarized Modes and the Faraday Effect
Propagation Across the Magnetic Field
Resonance Cones
Problems
Plasma Boundaries
The Space-Charge Sheath
The Child-Langmuir Law
The Bohm Criterion
Stability Analysis
The Bohm Criterion Imposed by the Sheath
The Bohm Criterion as Seen from the Presheath
The Plane Langmuir Probe
The Ion Saturation Current
The Electron Saturation Current
The Electron Retardation Current
The Floating Potential
Advanced Langmuir Probe Methods
The Druyvesteyn Method
A Practical Realization of the Druyvesteyn Technique
Double Probes
Orbital Motion about Cylindrical and Spherical Probes
Application: Ion Extraction From Plasmas
Double Layers
Langmuir's Strong Double Layer
Experimental Evidence of Double Layers
Problems
Instabilities
Beam-Plasma Instability
Non-Thermal Distribution Functions
Dispersion of the Beam-Plasma Modes
Growth Rate for a Weak Beam
Why is the Slow Space-Charge Wave Unstable?
Temporal or Spatial Growth
Buneman Instability
Dielectric Function
Instability Analysis
Beam Instability in Finite Systems
Geometry of the Pierce Diode
The Dispersion Relation for a Free Electron Beam
The Influence of the Boundaries
The Pierce Modes
Discussion of the Pierce Model
Macroscopic Instabilities
Stable Magnetic Configurations
Pinch Instabilities
Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Problems
Kinetic Description of Plasmas
The Vlasov Model
Heuristic Derivation of the Vlasov Equation
The Vlasov Equation
Properties of the Vlasov Equation
Relation Between the Vlasov Equation and Fluid Models
Application to Current Flow in Diodes
Construction of the Distribution Function
Virtual Cathode and Current Continuity
Finding a Self-Consistent Solution
Discussion of Numerical Solutions
Kinetic Effects in Electrostatic Waves
Electrostatic Electron Waves
The Meaning of Cold, Warm and Hot Plasma
Landau Damping
Damping of Ion-Acoustic Waves
A Physical Picture of Landau Damping
Plasma Wave Echoes
No Simple Route to Landau Damping
Plasma Simulation with Particle Codes
The Particle-in-Cell Algorithm
Phase-Space Representation
Instability Saturation by Trapping
Current Flow in Bounded Plasmas
Problems
Dusty Plasmas
Charging of Dust Particles
Secondary Emission
Photoemission
Charge Collection
Charging Time
Charge Fluctuations
Influence of Dust Density on Dust Charge
Forces on Dust Particles
Levitation and Confinement
Neutral Drag Force
Thermophoretic Force
Ion Wind Forces
Interparticle Forces
Plasma Crystals
Experimental Observations
The Role of Ion Wakes
Coulomb and Yukawa Balls
A Simple Model for the Structure of Yukawa Balls
Waves in Dusty Plasmas
Compressional and Shear Waves in Monolayers
Spectral Energy Density of Waves
Dust Density Waves
Concluding Remarks
Problems
Plasma Generation
DC-Discharges
Types of Low Pressure Discharges
Regions in a Glow Discharge
Processes in the Cathode Region
The Hollow Cathode Effect
Thermionic Emitters
The Negative Glow
The Positive Column
Similarity Laws
Discharge Modes of Thermionic Discharges
Capacitive Radio-Frequency Discharges
The Impedance of the Bulk Plasma
Sheath Expansion
Electron Energetics
Self Bias
Application: Anisotropic Etching of Silicon
Inductively Coupled Plasmas
The Skin Effect
E and H-Mode
The Equivalent Circuit for an ICP
Concluding Remark
Problems
Glossary
Appendix: Constants and Formulas
Physical Constants
List of Useful Formulas
Lengths
Frequencies
Velocities
Useful Mathematics
Vector Relations
Matrices and Tensors
The Theorems of Gauss and Stokes
Solutions
References
Name Index
Subject Index

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