Experimental Techniques in Nuclear and Particle Physics

ISBN-10: 3642008283

ISBN-13: 9783642008283

Edition: 2010

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Description: The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject.After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. It ideally complements a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics. It introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and nuclear physics. For the physicists it is a good introduction to all experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Nuclear engineers will appreciate the nuclear measurement techniques, while biomedical engineers can learn about measuring ionising radiation, the use of accelerators for radiotherapy. What’s more, worked examples, end-of-chapter exercises, and appendices with key constants, properties and relationships supplement the textual material.

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Book details

Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: Springer London, Limited
Publication date: 2/26/2010
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 306
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.254
Language: English

Introduction
Documentation
Units and Physical Constants
Special Relativity
Probability and Statistics
The Structure of Matter at the Microscopic Scale
Nuclei and Nuclear Decay
The Beta Decay
The Alpha Decay
The Gamma Decay
Electron Capture and Internal Conversion
The Radioactive Decay Law
The Nuclear Level Diagram
Exercises
References
Interactions of Particles in Matter
Cross Section and Mean Free Path
Energy Loss of a Charged Particle due to Its Interaction with the Electrons
Other Electromagnetic Interactions of Charged Particles
Interactions of X-Rays and Gamma Rays in Matter
Interactions of Particles in Matter due to the Strong Force
Neutrino Interactions
Illustrations of the Interactions of Particles
Exercises
References
Natural and Man-Made Sources of Radiation
Natural Sources of Radiation
Units of Radiation and Radiation Protection
Electrostatic Accelerators
Cyclotrons
The Quest for the Highest Energy, Synchrotrons and Colliders
Linear Accelerators
Secondary Beams
Applications of Accelerators
Outlook
Exercises
References
Detectors Based on Ionisation in Gases
Introduction to Detectors for Subatomic Particles
Ionisation and Charge Transport in Gases
Ionisation Chambers
Counters with Gas Amplification
Applications of Counters with Gas Amplification
Proportional Counters for X-Ray Detection
Gas Counters for the Tracking of High-Energy Charged Particles
Applications of Gas Counters in Homeland Security
Recent Developments in Counters Based on Gas Amplification
Micro-strip Gas Counters (MSGC)
GEM and MICROMEGAS Counters
Resistive Plate Chambers
Exercises
References
Detectors Based on Ionisation in Semiconductor Materials
Introduction to Semiconductors
The Semiconductor Junction as a Detector
Silicon Semiconductor Detectors
Germanium Semiconductor Detectors
Other Semiconductor Detector Materials
Exercises
References
Detectors Based on Scintillation
Introduction to Scintillators
Organic Scintillators
Inorganic Scintillators
Photodetectors
Using Scintillators in the Nuclear Energy Range
Applications of Scintillators in High-Energy Physics
Applications of Scintillators in Medicine
Exercises
References
Neutron Detection
Slow Neutron Detection
Neutron Detectors for Nuclear Reactors
Fast Neutron Detection
Detectors for Fast Neutrons Based on Moderation
Detectors Based on the Observation of the Recoil Nuclei
Exercises
Reference
Electronics for Particle Detectors
Introduction
Impulse Response and Transfer Function
Amplifiers for Particle Detectors
The Thermal Noise of a Resistor
Resistor and Transistor Noise in Amplifiers
Noise Contribution of a Parallel Resistor or a Series Resistor
Noise Due to the First Transistor
Shot Noise
Summary and Conclusions
Exercises
References
Solutions to Exercises
Physical Constants
International System of Units
Atomic and Molecular Properties of Materials
Periodic Table of Elements
Electromagnetic Relations
Commonly Used Radioactive Sources
Index
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