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Physics of the Human Body

ISBN-10: 3540296034
ISBN-13: 9783540296034
Edition: 2007
Authors: Irving P. Herman
List price: $149.00
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Description: "Physics of the Human Body" comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in  More...

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Book details

List price: $149.00
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 12/1/2008
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 860
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 3.146
Language: English

"Physics of the Human Body" comprehensively addresses the physical and engineering aspects of human physiology by using and building on first-year college physics and mathematics. Topics include the mechanics of the static body and the body in motion, the materials properties of the body, muscles in the body, the energetics of body metabolism, fluid flow in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the acoustics of sound waves in speaking and hearing, vision and the optics of the eye, the electrical properties of the body, and the basic engineering principles of feedback and control in regulating all aspects of function. The goal of this text is to understand physical issues concerning the human body, in part by developing and then using simple and subsequently more refined models of the macrophysics of the human body. Many chapters include a brief review of the necessary physical principles. There are problems at the end of each chapter; solutions to selected problems are also provided. This text is geared to undergraduates interested in physics, medical applications of physics, quantitative physiology, medicine, and biomedical engineering.

Terminology, the Standard Human, and Scaling
Anatomical Terminology
Motion in the Human Machine
The Standard Human
Scaling Relationships
Allometric Rules
Scaling in the Senses
Summary
Problems
Statics of the Body
Review of Forces, Torques, and Equilibrium
Statics: Motion in One Plane and Levers
Statics in the Body
The Lower Arm
Hip Problems
Statics of Other Synovial Joints
Lower Back Problems
Three-Force Rule
Multisegment Modeling
The Sense of Touch
Diversion into the Units of Force and Pressure
Force
Pressure
Summary
Problems
Motion
Kinematics and Musculature
Standing
Stability
Forces on the Feet
Walking
Kinematics
Muscular Action
Friction
Energetics
Review of Harmonic Motion, Pendulums, and Moments of Inertia
Ballistic (or Pendulum) Model of Walking
Inverted Pendulum Model
Running
Kinematics
Muscular Action
Energetics
Bouncing Ball/Pogo Stick Model
Jumping
Vertical Jump
Pole Vault
Throwing a Ball
Throwing a Spinning Ball
Power Generated During a Throw
Other Types of Motion
Collisions of the Human Body
Kinematics of a Collision
Consequences of Collisions
Hitting Balls
Running
Jumping
Sustained Acceleration
Physics of Sports
Summary
Problems
Mechanical Properties of the Body
Material Components of the Body
Bone
Ligaments and Tendons
Cartilage
Elastic Properties
Basic Stress-Strain Relationships
Other Stress-Strain Relations
Bone Shortening
Energy Storage in Elastic Media
Time-Independent Deviations in Hookean Materials
Non-Hookean Materials
Static Equilibrium of Deformable Bodies (Advanced Topic)
Bending of a Beam (or Bone)
Time-Dependent Deviations from Elastic Behavior: Viscoelasticity
Perfect Spring
Perfect Dashpot
Simple Viscoelastic Models
Viscoelasticity in Bone
Bone Fractures
Modes of Sudden Breaking of Bones
Stress Fractures (Advanced Topic)
Common Sports Injuries
Avoiding Fractures and Other Injuries: Materials for Helmets
Summary
Problems
Muscles
Skeletal Muscles in the Body
Types of Muscle Activity
The Structure of Muscles
Passive Muscles
Activating Muscles: Macroscopic View
Mechanical Model of the Active State of Muscles
The Effect of Exercise
Muscle Fatigue
Coordination of Muscles
Active/Tetanized Muscles: Microscopic View
Total Muscle Tension
Everyday Proof of the Limited Range of Useful Muscle Length
Hill Force-Velocity Curve
The Sliding Filament Model: Nanoscopic View
Summary
Problems
Metabolism: Energy, Heat, Work, and Power of the Body
Conservation of Energy and Heat Flow
Energy Content of Body Fuel
Metabolizable Energy and Energy Storage
Energy Storage Molecules
How ATP is Produced and Used as an Energy Source
How ATP is Actually Used by the Body
Metabolic Rates
Basal Metabolic Rate
Metabolic Rates during Common Activities
Weight Gain and Loss
Loss of Body Heat
Modes of Heat Loss
Body Temperature
Summary
Problems
Fluid Pressure, Fluid Flow in the Body, and Motion in Fluids
Characteristic Pressures in the Body
Definition and Units
Measuring Pressure
Basic Physics of Pressure and Flow of Fluids
Law of Laplace
Fluids in Motion
Equation of Continuity
Bernoulli's Equation
Interactions among the Flow Parameters
Viscous Flow and Poiseuille's Law
Diffusion (Advanced Topic)
Pressure and Flow in the Body
Motion of Humans in Fluids
Swimming
Human Flight
Summary
Problems
Cardiovascular System
Overview of the Circulatory System and Cardiac Cycle
Circulation
Cardiac Cycle
Valves
Physics of the Circulation System
Properties of Blood
Blood Pressure and Flow in Vessels
Capillaries and Osmotic Pressure
Blood Flow Rates and Speeds
Consequences of Clogged Arteries
Work Done by the Heart and the Metabolic Needs of the Heart
Strokes and Aneurysms
Arterial Bifurcations and Saccular Aneurysms
Stenosis and Ischemic Strokes
Equation of Motion of Arteries and Aneurysms during Pulsatile Flow (Advanced Topic)
Modeling the Circulatory System and the Heart
Model of the Heart
Model of the Overall Flow in the Circulatory System
The Arterial Pulse
Windkessel Model
Modeling the Malfunctioning Heart
Summary
Problems
Lungs and Breathing
Structure of the Lungs
The Physics of the Alveoli
Physics of Breathing
Volume of the Lungs
Breathing Under Usual and Unusual Conditions
Flow of Air During Breathing
Mechanical Model of Breathing and Model Parameters
Inspiration/Expiration Cycle
Breathing with a Diseased Lung
Breathing at Higher Elevations
Work Needed to Breathe
Summary
Problems
Sound, Speech, and Hearing
The Physics of Sound Waves
The Speed and Properties of Sound Waves
Intensity of Sound Waves
What Happens when Sound Travels from One Medium to Another?
Resonant Cavities
Speech Production
Types of Sounds
Systems in Speech Production
Parameters of the Human Voice
The Energetics of Speaking
Hearing
Auditory Sensitivity
Connections to Hearing Perception
Other Vibrations in the Body
Cardiac and Other Sources of Sounds
Summary
Problems
Light, Eyes, and Vision
Structure of the Eye
Focusing and Imaging with Lenses
Image Formation
Scientific Basis for Imaging
Combinations of Lenses or Refractive Surfaces
Imaging and Detection by the Eye
Transmission of Light in the Eye
The Eye as a Compound Lens
Accommodation
Field of View and Binocular Vision
Adjustments of Light Levels
Limitations to Visual Acuity
Imperfect Human Vision
Correction of Vision by Eyeglasses, Contact Lenses, and Other Means
Types of Vision Impairment
Connections to Visual Perception
Vision in Other Animals
Summary
Problems
Electrical and Magnetic Properties
Review of Electrical Properties
Electrical Properties of Body Tissues
Electrical Conduction through Blood and Tissues
Nerve Conduction
Cell Membranes and Ion Distributions
Types of Cell Membrane Excitations
Model of Electrical Conduction along an Axon
Ion Channels, Hair Cells, Balance, Taste, and Smell
Electrical Properties of the Heart
Electrical Signals in the Brain
Effects of Electric Shock
Magnetic Properties
Magnetic Field from an Axon
Magnetic Sense
Electromagnetic Waves
Summary
Problems
Feedback and Control
Basics of Feedback and Control
Control Theory (Advanced Topic)
Regulation of the Body
Regulation of Temperature
Control of Blood Pressure
Regulation During Exercise
Summary
Problems
Symbols and Units
Locator of Major Anatomical and Anthropometric Information
Differential Equations
Simple First- and Second-Order Differential Equations
Exponential Decay and Drag
Harmonic Oscillator
Partial Differential Equations
Similar Model Systems
Distributed vs. Lumped Models: Electrical Analogs of Blood Flow (Advanced Topic)
Biophysics of the Human Body
Solutions
References
Index

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