Atom- und Quantenphysik

ISBN-10: 3540208070
ISBN-13: 9783540208075
Edition: 7th 2005
List price: $139.00
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Description: The Physics of Atoms and Quanta is a thorough introduction to experiments and theory in this field. Every classical and modern aspect is included and discussed in detail. The new edition is completely revised, new sections on atoms in strong  More...

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Book details

List price: $139.00
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2005
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 9/8/2005
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 520
Size: 8.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.190

The Physics of Atoms and Quanta is a thorough introduction to experiments and theory in this field. Every classical and modern aspect is included and discussed in detail. The new edition is completely revised, new sections on atoms in strong electric fields and high magnetic fields complete the comprehensive coverage of all topics related to atoms and quanta. All new developments, such as new experiments on quantum entanglement, the quantum computer, quantum information, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradoxon, Bell's inequality, Schrvdinger's cat, decoherence, Bose-Einstein-Condensation and the atom laser are discussed. Over 170 problems and their solutions help deepen the insight in this subject area and make this book a real study text. The second and more advanced book by the same authors entitled Molecular Physics and Elements of Quantum Chemistry is the completion of this unique textbook.

List of the Most Important Symbols Used
Introduction
Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics
Short Historical Review
The Mass and Size of the Atom
What is an Atom?
Determination of the Mass
Methods for Determining Avogadro's Number
Electrolysis
The Gas Constant and Boltzmann's Constant
X-Ray Diffraction in Crystals
Determination Using Radioactive Decay
Determination of the Size of the Atom
Application of the Kinetic Theory of Gases
The Interaction Cross Section
Experimental Determination of Interaction Cross Sections
Determining the Atomic Size from the Covolume
Atomic Sizes from X-Ray Diffraction Measurements on Crystals
Can Individual Atoms Be Seen?
Problems
Isotopes
The Periodic System of the Elements
Mass Spectroscopy
Parabola Method
Improved Mass Spectrometers
Results of Mass Spectrometry
Modern Applications of the Mass Spectrometer
Isotope Separation
Problems
The Nucleus of the Atom
Passage of Electrons Through Matter
Passage of Alpha Particles Through Matter (Rutherford Scattering)
Some Properties of Alpha Particles
Scattering of Alpha Particles by a Foil
Derivation of the Rutherford Scattering Formula
Experimental Results
What is Meant by Nuclear Radius?
Problems
The Photon
Wave Character of Light
Thermal Radiation
Spectral Distribution of Black Body Radiation
Planck's Radiation Formula
Einstein's Derivation of Planck's Formula
The Photoelectric Effect
The Compton Effect
Experiments
Derivation of the Compton Shift
Problems
The Electron
Production of Free Electrons
Size of the Electron
The Charge of the Electron
The Specific Charge e/m of the Electron
Wave Character of-Electrons and Other Particles
Interferometry with Atoms
Problems
Some Basic Properties of Matter Waves
Wave Packets
Probabilistic Interpretation
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation
The Energy-Time Uncertainty Relation
Some Consequences of the Uncertainty Relations for Bound States
Problems
Bohr's Model of the Hydrogen Atom
Basic Principles of Spectroscopy
The Optical Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom
Bohr's Postulates
Some Quantitative Conclusions
Motion of the Nucleus
Spectra of Hydrogen-like Atoms
Muonic Atoms
Excitation of Quantum Jumps by Collisions
Sommerfeld's Extension of the Bohr Model and the Experimental Justification of a Second Quantum Number
Lifting of Orbital Degeneracy by the Relativistic Mass Change
Limits of the Bohr-Sommerfeld Theory. The Correspondence Principle
Rydberg Atoms
Positronium, Muonium, and Antihydrogen
Problems
The Mathematical Framework of Quantum Theory
The Particle in a Box
The Schr�dinger Equation
The Conceptual Basis of Quantum Theory
Observations, Values of Measurements and Operators
Momentum Measurement and Momentum Probability
Average Values and Expectation Values
Operators and Expectation Values
Equations for Determining the Wavefunction
Simultaneous Observability and Commutation Relations
The Quantum Mechanical Oscillator
Problems
Quantum Mechanics of the Hydrogen Atom
Motion in a Central Field
Angular Momentum Eigenfunctions
The Radial Wavefunctions in a Central Field *
The Radial Wavefunctions of Hydrogen
Problems
Lifting of the Orbital Degeneracy in the Spectra of Alkali Atoms
Shell Structure
Screening
The Term Diagram
Inner Shells
Problems
Orbital and Spin Magnetism. Fine Structure
Introduction and Overview
Magnetic Moment of the Orbital Motion
Precession and Orientation in a Magnetic Field
Spin and Magnetic Moment of the Electron
Determination of the Gyromagnetic Ratio by the Einstein-de Haas Method
Detection of Directional Quantisation by Stern and Gerlach
Fine Structure and Spin-Orbit Coupling: Overview
Calculation of Spin-Orbit Splitting in the Bohr Model
Level Scheme of the Alkali Atoms
Fine Structure in the Hydrogen Atom
The Lamb Shift
Problems
Atoms in a Magnetic Field: Experiments and Their Semiclassical Description
Directional Quantisation in a Magnetic Field
Electron Spin Resonance
The Zeeman Effect
Experiments
Explanation of the Zeeman Effect from the Standpoint of Classical Electron Theory
Description of the Ordinary Zeeman Effect by the Vector Model
The Anomalous Zeeman Effect
Magnetic Moments with Spin-Orbit Coupling
The Paschen-Back Effect
Double Resonance and Optical Pumping
Problems
Atoms in a Magnetic Field: Quantum Mechanical Treatment
Quantum Theory of the Ordinary Zeeman Effect
Quantum Theoretical Treatment of the Electron and Proton Spins
Spin as Angular Momentum
Spin Operators, Spin Matrices and Spin Wavefunctions
The Schr�dinger Equation of a Spin in a Magnetic Field
Description of Spin Precession by Expectation Values
Quantum Mechanical Treatment of the Anomalous Zeeman Effect with Spin-Orbit Coupling *
Quantum Theory of a Spin in Mutually Perpendicular Magnetic Fields, One Constant and One Time Dependent
The Bloch Equations
The Relativistic Theory of the Electron. The Dirac Equation
Problems
Atoms in an Electric Field
Observations of the Stark Effect
Quantum Theory of the Linear and Quadratic Stark Effects
The Hamiltonian
The Quadratic Stark Effect.
Perturbation Theory Without Degeneracy *
The Linear Stark Effect.
Perturbation Theory in the Presence of Degeneracy *
The Interaction of a Two-Level Atom with a Coherent Radiation Field
Spin and Photon Echoes
A Glance at Quantum Electrodynamics *
Field Quantization
Mass Renormalization and Lamb Shift
Problems
General Laws of Optical Transitions
Symmetries and Selection Rules
Optical Matrix Elements
Examples of the Symmetry Behaviour of Wavefunctions
Selection Rules
Selection Rules and Multipole Radiation *
Linewidths and Lineshapes
Many-Electron Atoms
The Spectrum of the Helium Atom
Electron Repulsion and the Pauli Principle
Angular Momentum Coupling
Coupling Mechanism
LS Coupling (Russell-Saunders Coupling)
jj Coupling
Magnetic Moments of Many-Electron Atoms
Multiple Excitations
Problems
X-Ray Spectra, Internal Shells
Introductory Remarks
X-Radiation from Outer Shells
X-Ray Bremsstrahlung Spectra
Emission Line Spectra: Characteristic Radiation
Fine Structure of the X-Ray Spectra
Absorption Spectra
The Auger Effect
Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), ESCA
Problems
Structure of the Periodic System. Ground States of the Elements
Periodic System and Shell Structure
From the Electron Configuration to the Atomic Term Scheme. Atomic Ground States
Excited States of Atoms and Possible Electronic Configurations. Complete Term Schemes
The Many-Electron Problem. Hartree-Fock Method *
The Two-Electron Problem
Many Electrons Without Mutual Interactions
Coulomb Interaction of Electrons. Hartree and Hartree-Fock Methods
Problems
Nuclear Spin, Hyperfine Structure
Influence of the Atomic Nucleus on Atomic Spectra
Spins and Magnetic Moments of Atomic Nuclei
The Hyperfine Interaction
Hyperfine Structure in the Ground State of the Hydrogen Atom, the Sodium Atom, and the Hydrogen-like Ion <sub>83</sub>Bi<sup>82+</sup>
Hyperfine Structure in an External Magnetic Field, Electron Spin Resonance
Direct Measurements of Nuclear Spins and Magnetic Moments, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Applications of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
The Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moment
Problems
The Laser
Some Basic Concepts for the Laser
Rate Equations and Lasing Conditions
Amplitude and Phase of Laser Light
Problems
Modern Methods of Optical Spectroscopy
Classical Methods
Quantum Beats
Doppler-tree Saturation Spectroscopy
Doppler-free Two-Photon Absorption
Level-Crossing Spectroscopy and the Hanle Effect
Laser Cooling of Atoms
Nondestructive Single-Photon Detection - An Example of Atomic Physics in a Resonant Cavity
Problems
Progress in Quantum Physics: A Deeper Understanding and New Applications
Introduction
The Superposition Principle, Interference, Probabilily and Probability Amplitudes
Schr�dinger's Cat
Decoherence
Entanglement
The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) Paradox
Bell's Inequalities and the Hidden-Variable Hypothesis
Experiments to Test Bell's Inequalities
Quantum Computers
Historical Remarks
Review of Digital Computers
Basic Concepts of the Quantum Computer
Decoherence and Error Correction
A Comparison Between the Quantum Computer and the Digital Computer
Quantum Information Theory
The Bose-Einstein Condensation
Review of Statistical Mechanics
The Experimental Discovery
The Quantum Theory of the Bose-Einstein Condensation
The Atom Laser
Problems
Fundamentals of the Quantum Theory of Chemical Bonding
Introductory Remarks
The Hydrogen-Molecule Ion <$>{\rm H}^{+}_2<$>
The Tunnel Effect
The Hydrogen Molecule H<sub>2</sub>
Covalent-Ionic Resonance
The Hund-Mulliken-Bloch Theory of Bonding in Hydrogen
Hybridisation
The � Electrons of Benzene, C<sub>6</sub>H<sub>6</sub>
Problems
Appendix
The Dirac Delta Function and the Normalisation of the Wavefunction of a Free Particle in Unbounded Space
Some Properties of the Hamiltonian Operator, Its Eigenfunctions and its Eigenvalues

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