Physics of Solar Cells From Basic Principles to Advanced Concepts

ISBN-10: 3527408576

ISBN-13: 9783527408573

Edition: 2nd 2009

List price: $100.00 Buy it from $23.05
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Description:

Based on the highly regarded and extremely successful first edition, this thoroughly revised, updated and expanded edition contains the latest knowledge on the mechanisms of solar energy conversion. The textbook describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. Requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, the book enables both students and researchers to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this knowledge to their own solar cell development. New exercises after each chapter help students to consolidate their freshly acquired knowledge, while the book also serves as a reference for researchers already working in this exciting and challenging field.
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Book details

List price: $100.00
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/23/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 256
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.25" tall
Weight: 1.320

Peter W�rfel studied physics at the University of Karlsruhe where he attended lectures in the same lecture hall in which Heinrich Hertz discovered the electro-magnetic waves in 1888. He obtained his PhD from the University of Karlsruhe and later became a Professor at the same university himself. His research activities started with ferroelectric thin films, mostly for pyroelectric infrared detectors. He always kept an interest in photovoltaics and has concentrated his efforts in this field over the last 20 years.

List of Symbols
Preface
Problems of the Energy Economy
Energy Economy
Estimate of the Maximum Reserves of Fossil Energy
The Greenhouse Effect
Combustion
The Temperature of the Earth
Problems
Photons
Black-body Radiation
Photon Density n� in a Cavity (Planck's Law of Radiation)
Energy Current Through an Area dA into the Solid Angle d�
Radiation from a Spherical Surface into the Solid Angle d�
Radiation from a Surface Element into a Hemisphere (Stefan-Boltzmann Radiation Law)
Kirchhoff's Law of Radiation for Nonblack Bodies
Absorption by Semiconductors
The Solar Spectrum
Air Mass
Concentration of the Solar Radiation
The Abb� Sine Condition
Geometrical Optics
Concentration of Radiation Using the Sine Condition
Maximum Efficiency of Solar Energy Conversion
Problems
Semiconductors
Electrons in Semiconductors
Distribution Function for Electrons
Density of States De(Ee) for Electrons
Density of Electrons
Holes
Doping
Quasi-Fermi Distributions
Fermi Energy and Electrochemical Potential
Work Function
Generation of Electrons and Holes
Absorption of Photons
Generation of Electron-Hole Pairs
Recombination of Electrons and Holes
Radiative Recombination, Emission of Photons
Nonradiative Recombination
Lifetimes
Light Emission by Semiconductors
Transition Rates and Absorption Coefficient
Problems
Conversion of Thermal Radiation into Chemical Energy
Maximum Efficiency for the Production of Chemical Energy
Problems
Conversion of Chemical Energy into Electrical Energy
Transport of Electrons and Holes
Field Current
Diffusion Current
Total Charge Current
Separation of Electrons and Holes
Diffusion Length of Minority Carriers
Dielectric Relaxation
Ambipolar Diffusion
Dember Effect
Mathematical Description
Problems
Basic Structure of Solar Cells
A Chemical Solar Cells
Basic Mechanisms in Solar Cells
Dye Solar Cell
The pn-Junction
Electrochemical Equilibrium of Electrons in a pn-Junction in the Dark
Potential Distribution across a pn-Junction
Current-Voltage Characteristic of the pn-Junction
pn-Junction with Impurity Recombination, Two-diode Model
Heterojunctions
Semiconductor-Metal Contact
Schottky Contact
MIS Contact
The Role of the Electric Field in Solar Cells
Organic Solar Cells
Excitons
Structure of Organic Solar Cells
Light Emitting Diodes (LED)
Problems
Limitations on Energy Conversion in Solar Cells
Maximum Efficiency of Solar Cells
Efficiency of Solar Cells as a Function of Their Energy Gap
The Optimal Silicon Solar Cell
Light Trapping
Thin-film Solar Cells
Minimal Thickness of a Solar Cell
Equivalent Circuit
Temperature Dependence of the Open-circuit Voltage
Intensity Dependence of the Efficiency
Efficiencies of the Individual Energy Conversion Processes
Problems
Concepts for Improving the Efficiency of Solar Cells
Tandem Cells
The Electrical Interconnection of Tandem Cells
Concentrator Cells
Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion
Impact Ionization
Hot Electrons from Impact Ionization
Energy Conversion with Hot Electrons and Holes
Two-step Excitation in Three-level Systems
Impurity Photovoltaic Effect
Up-and Down-conversion of Photons
Problems
Prospects for the Future
Solutions
Appendix
References
Index
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