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Theory of Atmospheric Radiative Transfer A Comprehensive Introduction

ISBN-10: 3527408363
ISBN-13: 9783527408368
Edition: 2012
List price: $65.00
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Book details

List price: $65.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 3/14/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 366
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.25" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.386

Manfred Wendisch is Professor at the Institute for Atmospheric Physics at the University of Mainz, Germany. He carried out research projects at the Institute for Tropospheric Research (IfT) in Leipzig and at the NASA Ames Center; NASA awared him a Group Achievement Award.#60;br#62;He can refer to numerous papers.#60;br#62;#60;br#62;Ping Yang is Associate Professor with the Department of Atmospheric Sciences at Texas A&M University, USA. Before taking this position, he carried out research at various institutions, including the Goddard Earth Sciences and Technology Center, the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, both Maryland, and the UCLA, California.#60;br#62;He received coveted awards and serves as editor to three reviewed journals.

Preface
Introduction
Brief Survey of Atmospheric Radiation
A Broadbrush Picture of the Atmospheric Radiation Budget
Solar and Terrestrial Thermal Infrared Spectra in a Cloudless Atmosphere
The Greenhouse Effect
Relevance to the Interpretation of Spaceborne Observations
Notation and Math Refresher
Physical Dimensions and Prefixes
Some Rules and Conventions
Vector Algebra Brief
Major Vector Operations
Use of Index Notation
Dirac �5-Function
Geometry
Directions
Solid Angle
Angle between Two Directions
Orthogonal Functions
Legendre Polynomials
Legendre Functions
Quadrature Formula
Problems
Fundamentals
Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation
Maxwell's Equations and Plane-Wave Solutions
Wavelength, Frequency, Wavenumber, Dispersion Relation, and Phase Speed
Coherence, Incoherence, and Polarization
Wave-Particle Duality
Atmospheric EM Radiation Spectrum
Basic Radiometric Quantities
Radiant Energy Flux, Flux Density, and Radiance
Radiant Energy Density and Radiance
Irradiance, Emittance, Exitance, and Actinic Radiation
Relation between Upward, Downward, and Net Actinic Flux Densities and Radiance
Isotropic Radiation Field
Reflectivity, Absorptivity, and Transmissivity
Blackbody and Graybody Radiation: Basic Laws
Planck's Law
Wien's Displacement Law
Stefan-Boltzmann Law
Rayleigh-Jeans and Wien's Approximations
Emissivity and Kirchhof s Law
Problems
Interactions of EM Radiation and Individual Particles
Overview
Complex Index of Refraction
Decomposition of Electric Field Vector
Complex Amplitude Scattering Matrix
Stokes Vector
Degree of Polarization
Mueller Matrix
Optical Properties of Individual Particles
Optical Parameters
Optical Theorem
Spherical Particles (Lorenz-Mie Theory)
Assumptions and Goals
Efficiency Factors: Q<sub>ext,Mie</sub>, Q<sub>sca,Mie</sub>, Q<sub>abs,Mie</sub>
Single-Scattering Albedo:�<sub>Mie</sub>
Elements of the Complex Amplitude Scattering Matrix
Elements of the Mueller Matrix
Polarization
Phase Function for Unpolarized Incident Radiation: P<sub>unp,Mie</sub>
Asymmetry Factor: g<sub>unp,Mie</sub>
Rayleigh Scattering and Oscillating Electric Dipole
Amplitudes Scattering Matrix and Mueller Matrix
Degree of Polarization
Rayleigh Phase Function for Unpolarized Incident Radiation: P<sub>unp,Rayl</sub>
Scattering Cross Section and Efficiency Factor
Extinction and Absorption Cross Sections and Efficiency Factors
Rayleigh Scattering as an Approximation of Lorenz-Mie Theory
Rayleigh Scattering in the Atmosphere
Scattering by Nonspherical Individual Particles
Analytical Approaches
Mueller Matrix
Phase Function
Integrated Optical Properties
Geometric-Optics Method for Light Scattering by Large Particles
Directional Changes Due to Reflection and Transmission (Refraction) at a Plane Interface: Snel's Law
The n<sup>2</sup> Law
Fresnel Formulas for Reflection and Transmission
Radiant Energy Changes for Transmission (Plane Interface)
Radiant Energy Changes for Reflection (Plane Interface)
Ray-Tracing Technique
Diffraction
Rainbow and Halo
Problems
Volumetric (Bulk) Optical Properties
Particle Size Distribution
Analytical Descriptions
Integrated Microphysical Parameters
Parameterizations
Volumetric (Bulk) Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction
Problems
Radiative Transfer Equation
Optical Thickness
Lambert-Bouguer Law
Differential and Exponential Forms
Application to Direct Solar Irradiance <sub>dir,�</sub>
General Formulation of the RTE
Spectral Photon Density Function
Radiative Transfer Equation in Scattering Media
Photon Budget Equation
3D Time-Dependent and Stationary RTE for Total Radiance
3D Stationary RTE for Diffuse Radiance
ID RTE for a Horizontally Homogeneous Atmosphere
Independent Variables
Standard Form of ID RTE for Diffuse Radiance
Downward Diffuse Radiance
Upward Radiance
Problems
Numerical and Approximate Solution Techniques for the RTE
Legendre and Fourier Expansions
Expansion of Phase Function in Terms of Legendre Polynomials
Truncation of Phase Function and Similarity Principle
Atmospheric Angular Coordinates
The Delta-M Method (DMM) and Delta-Fit Methods (DFM)
Fourier Expansions of Diffuse Radiance and Irradiance
Equations for Fourier Modes of Diffuse Radiance
Net Radiative Flux Density in a Nonabsorbing Atmosphere
Method of Successive Order of Scattering (MSOS)
Adding-Doubling Method (A-DM)
Simplified Example
Generalization for Radiances
Application to Flux Densities
Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM)
Spherical Harmonics Method (SHM)
Monte Carlo Method (MCM)
Basic Principle
Backward (Inverse) Monte Carlo Method (BMCM)
Two-Stream Approximation (TSA)
Classical Approach
TSA Based on RTE
Problems
Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases
Interactions of Photons and Gas Molecules
Types of Molecular Energy E<sub>mol</sub>
Photon Absorption and Emission
Allowed Quantized Energies and Frequencies (Wavelengths)
Energy Level Probability in Thermal Equihbrium
Examples of Energy Transitions
Structure of Gas Molecules
Molecular Rotational Energy E<sub>n<sub>rot</sub></sub>
Molecular Vibrational Energy E<sub>n<sub>vib</sub></sub>
Line Spectra for Single-Atomic Gases
Molecular Electron Orbital Energy E<sub>n<sub>orb</sub></sub>
Line Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom
Molecular Absorption/Emission Line Spectra
Molecular Rotational Spectra
Ratio of Molecular Electron Orbital and Rotational Energies
Vibrational Spectra of Diatomic Molecules
Combined Molecular Vibration-Rotation Spectra
Examples of Atmospheric Gas Spectra
Three General Types of Spectra
Infrared (IR) - Combined Vibrational and Rotational Transitions
Near Infrared (NIR) to Visible (VIS)
Visible (VIS) to Ultraviolet (UV)-Electron Orbital Transitions
Approximations of Absorption/Emission line Shapes
Lorentz Line Shape of the Absorption Coefficient Collision Broadening
Thermal Doppler Line Shape
Voigt Line Shape-Combined Collision and Doppler Broadening
Spectral Transmissivity and Absorptivity
Weak-Line and Strong-Line Approximations
Line-By-Line Method (LBLM)
Band Models
Scaling Techniques for Inhomogeneous Path
The k-Distribution Method
The Correlated k-Distribution Method (CKDM)
Application of the CKDM to Satellite Remote Sensing
Problems
Terrestrial Radiative Transfer
Downward Spectral Radiation
Diffuse Downward Radiance I<sub>diff.�</sub><sup>&#8595;</sup>
Diffuse Downward Irradiance F<sub>diff,�</sub><sup>&#8595;</sup>
Upward Terrestrial Spectral Radiation
Diffuse Upward Radiance I<sub>diff,�</sub><sup>&#8593;</sup>
Diffuse Upward Irradiance F<sub>diff,�</sub><sup>&#8593;</sup>
Example of Simulated Spectra
Downward and Upward Radiances
Influence of Cirrus on Terrestrial Spectral Irradiance
Broadband Terrestrial Radiative Transfer
Impact of Cirrus on Irradiance
Radiative Cooling and Heating
Problems
Abbreviations, Symbols, and Constants
Acronyms
Subscripts and Superscripts
Greek Symbols
Latin Symbols
Physical Constants
Mathematical Constants
References
Index

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