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Preface | |

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Introduction | |

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Brief Survey of Atmospheric Radiation | |

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A Broadbrush Picture of the Atmospheric Radiation Budget | |

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Solar and Terrestrial Thermal Infrared Spectra in a Cloudless Atmosphere | |

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The Greenhouse Effect | |

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Relevance to the Interpretation of Spaceborne Observations | |

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Notation and Math Refresher | |

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Physical Dimensions and Prefixes | |

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Some Rules and Conventions | |

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Vector Algebra Brief | |

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Major Vector Operations | |

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Use of Index Notation | |

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Dirac ï¿½5-Function | |

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Geometry | |

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Directions | |

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Solid Angle | |

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Angle between Two Directions | |

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Orthogonal Functions | |

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Legendre Polynomials | |

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Legendre Functions | |

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Quadrature Formula | |

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Problems | |

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Fundamentals | |

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Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation | |

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Maxwell's Equations and Plane-Wave Solutions | |

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Wavelength, Frequency, Wavenumber, Dispersion Relation, and Phase Speed | |

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Coherence, Incoherence, and Polarization | |

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Wave-Particle Duality | |

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Atmospheric EM Radiation Spectrum | |

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Basic Radiometric Quantities | |

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Radiant Energy Flux, Flux Density, and Radiance | |

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Radiant Energy Density and Radiance | |

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Irradiance, Emittance, Exitance, and Actinic Radiation | |

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Relation between Upward, Downward, and Net Actinic Flux Densities and Radiance | |

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Isotropic Radiation Field | |

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Reflectivity, Absorptivity, and Transmissivity | |

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Blackbody and Graybody Radiation: Basic Laws | |

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Planck's Law | |

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Wien's Displacement Law | |

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Stefan-Boltzmann Law | |

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Rayleigh-Jeans and Wien's Approximations | |

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Emissivity and Kirchhof s Law | |

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Problems | |

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Interactions of EM Radiation and Individual Particles | |

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Overview | |

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Complex Index of Refraction | |

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Decomposition of Electric Field Vector | |

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Complex Amplitude Scattering Matrix | |

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Stokes Vector | |

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Degree of Polarization | |

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Mueller Matrix | |

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Optical Properties of Individual Particles | |

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Optical Parameters | |

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Optical Theorem | |

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Spherical Particles (Lorenz-Mie Theory) | |

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Assumptions and Goals | |

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Efficiency Factors: Q<sub>ext,Mie</sub>, Q<sub>sca,Mie</sub>, Q<sub>abs,Mie</sub> | |

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Single-Scattering Albedo:ï¿½<sub>Mie</sub> | |

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Elements of the Complex Amplitude Scattering Matrix | |

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Elements of the Mueller Matrix | |

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Polarization | |

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Phase Function for Unpolarized Incident Radiation: P<sub>unp,Mie</sub> | |

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Asymmetry Factor: g<sub>unp,Mie</sub> | |

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Rayleigh Scattering and Oscillating Electric Dipole | |

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Amplitudes Scattering Matrix and Mueller Matrix | |

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Degree of Polarization | |

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Rayleigh Phase Function for Unpolarized Incident Radiation: P<sub>unp,Rayl</sub> | |

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Scattering Cross Section and Efficiency Factor | |

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Extinction and Absorption Cross Sections and Efficiency Factors | |

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Rayleigh Scattering as an Approximation of Lorenz-Mie Theory | |

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Rayleigh Scattering in the Atmosphere | |

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Scattering by Nonspherical Individual Particles | |

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Analytical Approaches | |

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Mueller Matrix | |

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Phase Function | |

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Integrated Optical Properties | |

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Geometric-Optics Method for Light Scattering by Large Particles | |

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Directional Changes Due to Reflection and Transmission (Refraction) at a Plane Interface: Snel's Law | |

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The n<sup>2</sup> Law | |

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Fresnel Formulas for Reflection and Transmission | |

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Radiant Energy Changes for Transmission (Plane Interface) | |

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Radiant Energy Changes for Reflection (Plane Interface) | |

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Ray-Tracing Technique | |

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Diffraction | |

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Rainbow and Halo | |

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Problems | |

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Volumetric (Bulk) Optical Properties | |

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Particle Size Distribution | |

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Analytical Descriptions | |

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Integrated Microphysical Parameters | |

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Parameterizations | |

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Volumetric (Bulk) Scattering, Absorption, and Extinction | |

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Problems | |

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Radiative Transfer Equation | |

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Optical Thickness | |

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Lambert-Bouguer Law | |

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Differential and Exponential Forms | |

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Application to Direct Solar Irradiance <sub>dir,ï¿½</sub> | |

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General Formulation of the RTE | |

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Spectral Photon Density Function | |

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Radiative Transfer Equation in Scattering Media | |

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Photon Budget Equation | |

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3D Time-Dependent and Stationary RTE for Total Radiance | |

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3D Stationary RTE for Diffuse Radiance | |

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ID RTE for a Horizontally Homogeneous Atmosphere | |

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Independent Variables | |

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Standard Form of ID RTE for Diffuse Radiance | |

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Downward Diffuse Radiance | |

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Upward Radiance | |

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Problems | |

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Numerical and Approximate Solution Techniques for the RTE | |

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Legendre and Fourier Expansions | |

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Expansion of Phase Function in Terms of Legendre Polynomials | |

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Truncation of Phase Function and Similarity Principle | |

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Atmospheric Angular Coordinates | |

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The Delta-M Method (DMM) and Delta-Fit Methods (DFM) | |

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Fourier Expansions of Diffuse Radiance and Irradiance | |

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Equations for Fourier Modes of Diffuse Radiance | |

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Net Radiative Flux Density in a Nonabsorbing Atmosphere | |

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Method of Successive Order of Scattering (MSOS) | |

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Adding-Doubling Method (A-DM) | |

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Simplified Example | |

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Generalization for Radiances | |

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Application to Flux Densities | |

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Discrete Ordinate Method (DOM) | |

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Spherical Harmonics Method (SHM) | |

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Monte Carlo Method (MCM) | |

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Basic Principle | |

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Backward (Inverse) Monte Carlo Method (BMCM) | |

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Two-Stream Approximation (TSA) | |

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Classical Approach | |

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TSA Based on RTE | |

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Problems | |

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Absorption and Emission by Atmospheric Gases | |

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Interactions of Photons and Gas Molecules | |

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Types of Molecular Energy E<sub>mol</sub> | |

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Photon Absorption and Emission | |

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Allowed Quantized Energies and Frequencies (Wavelengths) | |

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Energy Level Probability in Thermal Equihbrium | |

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Examples of Energy Transitions | |

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Structure of Gas Molecules | |

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Molecular Rotational Energy E<sub>n<sub>rot</sub></sub> | |

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Molecular Vibrational Energy E<sub>n<sub>vib</sub></sub> | |

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Line Spectra for Single-Atomic Gases | |

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Molecular Electron Orbital Energy E<sub>n<sub>orb</sub></sub> | |

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Line Spectrum of the Hydrogen Atom | |

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Molecular Absorption/Emission Line Spectra | |

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Molecular Rotational Spectra | |

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Ratio of Molecular Electron Orbital and Rotational Energies | |

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Vibrational Spectra of Diatomic Molecules | |

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Combined Molecular Vibration-Rotation Spectra | |

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Examples of Atmospheric Gas Spectra | |

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Three General Types of Spectra | |

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Infrared (IR) - Combined Vibrational and Rotational Transitions | |

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Near Infrared (NIR) to Visible (VIS) | |

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Visible (VIS) to Ultraviolet (UV)-Electron Orbital Transitions | |

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Approximations of Absorption/Emission line Shapes | |

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Lorentz Line Shape of the Absorption Coefficient Collision Broadening | |

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Thermal Doppler Line Shape | |

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Voigt Line Shape-Combined Collision and Doppler Broadening | |

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Spectral Transmissivity and Absorptivity | |

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Weak-Line and Strong-Line Approximations | |

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Line-By-Line Method (LBLM) | |

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Band Models | |

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Scaling Techniques for Inhomogeneous Path | |

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The k-Distribution Method | |

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The Correlated k-Distribution Method (CKDM) | |

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Application of the CKDM to Satellite Remote Sensing | |

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Problems | |

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Terrestrial Radiative Transfer | |

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Downward Spectral Radiation | |

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Diffuse Downward Radiance I<sub>diff.ï¿½</sub><sup>↓</sup> | |

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Diffuse Downward Irradiance F<sub>diff,ï¿½</sub><sup>↓</sup> | |

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Upward Terrestrial Spectral Radiation | |

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Diffuse Upward Radiance I<sub>diff,ï¿½</sub><sup>↑</sup> | |

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Diffuse Upward Irradiance F<sub>diff,ï¿½</sub><sup>↑</sup> | |

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Example of Simulated Spectra | |

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Downward and Upward Radiances | |

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Influence of Cirrus on Terrestrial Spectral Irradiance | |

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Broadband Terrestrial Radiative Transfer | |

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Impact of Cirrus on Irradiance | |

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Radiative Cooling and Heating | |

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Problems | |

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Abbreviations, Symbols, and Constants | |

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Acronyms | |

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Subscripts and Superscripts | |

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Greek Symbols | |

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Latin Symbols | |

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Physical Constants | |

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Mathematical Constants | |

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References | |

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Index | |