Person and the Situation Perspectives of Social Psychology

ISBN-10: 1905177445
ISBN-13: 9781905177448
Edition: 2nd
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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Publisher: Pinter & Martin Limited
Publication date: 8/8/2011
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 288
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.232
Language: English

He was a reporter for the Washington Post from 1987 to 1996, working first as a science writer & then as New York City bureau chief. Since 1996, he has been a staff writer for The New Yorker.

Foreword
Preface
Preface To The First Edition
Acknowledgements
Introduction
The Lessons and Challenges of Social Psychology
The Weakness of Individual Differences
The Power of Situations
The Subtlety of Situations
The Predictability of Human Behavior
The Conflict Between the Lessons of Social Psychology and the Experience of Everyday Life
The Tripod on Which Social Psychology Rests
The Principle of Situationism
The Principle of Construal
The Concept of Tension Systems
Predictability and Indeterminacy
Prediction by Social Scientists
Prediction by Laypeople
The Problem of Effect Size
Statistical Criteria of Size
Pragmatic Criteria of Size
Expectation Criteria of Size
Overview and Plan of the Book
The Power Of The Situation
Social Influence and Group Processes
Uniformity Pressures in the Laboratory: Sherif's" Autokinetic" Studies and the Asch Paradigm
The Bennington Studies
Sherif's Studies of Intergroup Competition and Conflict
Inhibition of Bystander Intervention
Why Is Social Influence So Powerful?
Channel Factors
On Selling War Bonds
Time to Be a Good Samaritan
Effects of Minimal Compliance
Putting It All Together: Stanley Milgram and the Banality of Evil
Construing The Social World
Subjectivist Considerations in Objective Behaviorism
Relativity in Judgment and Motivation Phenomena
Some Nonobvious Motivational Consequences of Reward
The Construal Question in Social Psychology
Solomon Asch and the "Object of Judgment"
Partisanship and Perception
The Tools of Construal
The Attribution Process
Normative and Descriptive Principles of Causal Attribution
Attributions Regarding the Self
Failure to Allow for the Uncertainties of Construal
The False Consensus Effect
Overconfident Social and Personal Predictions
Situational Construal and the Fundamental Attribution Error
The Search For Personal Consistency
An Overview of Conventional Theories of Personality
The Scientific Findings and the Debate
The Challenge of 1968
Empirical Studies of Cross-Situational Consistency
Implications of the Empirical Challenge
Professional Responses to the Challenge of 1968
Bern's Revival of the Nomothetic-Idiographic Distinction
Methodological Objections and Alternative Empirical Approaches
Epstein's Claims for the Power of Aggregation
Making Sense of "Consistency" Correlations
Predictions Based on Single Observations
Predictions Based on Multiple Observations
The Relative Likelihood of Extreme Behaviors
Lay Personologyand Lay Social Psychology
Qualitative Aspects of Lay Personality Theory
Quantitative Aspects of Lay Personality Theory
Lay Dispositionism and the Fundamental Attribution Error
Inferring Dispositions from Situationally Produced Behavior
Slighting the Situation and Context in Favor of Dispositions
Overconfidence in Predictions Based on Dispositions
Dispositionism and the Interview Illusion
When Are Dispositional Data Useful?
The Sources of Lay Dispositionism
Perception and the Dispositionist Bias
Differing Causal Attributions for Actors and Observers
Construal and the Dispositionist Bias
Statistics and the Dispositionist Bias
How Could We Be So Wrong?
The Coherence Of Everyday Social Experience
Scientific Disentangling versus Real-World Confounding
Scientific Disentangling of Person and Situation
Real-World Confounding of Person and Situation
Audience-Induced Consistency and Predictability
When People Create Their Own Environments
Choosing and Altering Situations
Responsiveness to Others' Needs for Predictability
Continuity of Behavior over the Lifespan
Situations, Construals, and Personality
The Utility of Lay Personology Reconsidered
The Search for More Powerful Conceptions of Personality
The Social Psychology Of Culture
Situational Determinants of Culture
Effects of Ecology, Economy, and Technology
The Situation of the "Middleman" Minority
Culture, Ideology, and Construal
The Protestant Vision and the Growth of Capitalism
Associationism and Economic Development
Collectivism versus Individualism
Social Context and Attribution in East and West
Social Class and Locus of Control
Regional Differences in the United States as Cultural Differences
Enforcement of Cultural Norms
Cultures as Tension Systems
Cultural Change in America
Blacks and Whites in the American South
Traditional Japanese Culture and Capitalism
Traits, Ethnicities, and the Coordinates of Individual Differences
Can Ethnicities Substitute for Traits?
Why Is Ethnicity an Increasingly Important Factor in Modern Lite?
Applying Social Psychology
Methodological Lessons for Research Practitioners and Consumers
The Value of "True Experiments"
The Hawthorne Saga
When "Big" Interventions Fail
Situationism, Liberalism, and the Politics of Intervention
A Case History: The Cambridge-Somerville Youth Study
When "Small" Interventions Succeed
Lewinian Discussion Groups and Democratic Procedures
"Modeling" Effects on Prosocial Behavior
Interventions that Encourage Minority-Student Success
Distal versus Proximal Interventions
Labeling and Attribution Effects in the Classroom
Social Labels and Self-Fulfilling Expectations
Labeling versus Exhortation to Achieve Behavior Change
Motivational Consequences of Superfluous Inducements
Attributions for Classroom Success and Failure
Subjective Perceptions and Objective Health Consequences
Placebo Effects and Reverse Placebo Effects
The Beneficial Effect of Forewarning and Coping Information
The Health Consequences of Perceived Efficacy and Control
Everyday Application of Social Psychology
Afterword
References
Index of Authors And Names
Subject Index

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