Physical Chemistry for the Chemical and Biological Sciences

ISBN-10: 1891389068

ISBN-13: 9781891389061

Edition: 3rd 2000

Authors: Raymond Chang

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This introductory course on physical chemistry is geared towards pre-medical and life sciences students. It offers applications to biological problems, numerous worked examples and problems.
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Book details

List price: $132.50
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: University Science Books
Publication date: 3/1/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 1115
Size: 8.50" wide x 11.00" long x 0.20" tall
Weight: 5.522
Language: English

Nature of Physical Chemistry
Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, and the Chemical Mole
The Gas Laws
Some Basic Definitions
An Operational Definition of Temperature
Boyle's Law
Charles' and Gay-Lussac's Law
Avogadro's Law
The Ideal Gas Equation
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Real Gases
The van der Waals Equation
The Virial Equation of State
Condensation of Gases and the Critical State
Kinetic Theory of Gases
The Model
Pressure of a Gas
Kinetic Energy and Temperature
The Maxwell Distribution Laws
Molecular Collisions and the Mean Free Path
Gas Viscosity
Graham's Laws of Diffusion and Effusion
Equipartition of Energy
Derivation of Equation 3.24
Total and Partial Differentiation
The First Law of Thermodynamics
Work and Heat
The First Law of Thermodynamics
A Closer Look at Heat Capacities
Gas Expansion
Isothermal Expansion
Adiabatic Expansion
Standard Enthalpy of Formation
Dependence of Enthalpy of Reaction on Temperature
Bond Energies and Bond Enthalpies
Bond Enthalpy and Bond Dissociation Enthalpy
Exact and Inexact Differentials
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Spontaneous Process
Statistical Definition of Entropy
Thermodynamic Definition of Entropy
The Carnot Heat Engine
Thermodynamic Efficiency
The Entropy Function
Refrigerators, Air Conditioners, and Heat Pumps
The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Entropy Changes
Entropy Change due to Mixing of Ideal Gases
Entropy Change due to Phase Transitions
Entropy Change due to Heating
The Third Law of Thermodynamics
Third-Law or Absolute Entropies
Entropy of Chemical Reactions
Residual Entropy
Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies and Their Applications
Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies
Meaning of Helmholtz and Gibbs Energies
Helmholtz Energy
Gibbs Energy
Standard Molar Gibbs Energy of Formation ([Delta][subscript f]G[degree])
Dependence of Gibbs Energy on Temperature and Pressure
Dependence of G on Temperature
Dependence of G on Pressure
Gibbs Energy and Phase Equilibria
The Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron Equations
Phase Diagrams
The Phase Rule
Thermodynamics of Rubber Elasticity
Some Thermodynamic Relationships
Derivation of the Phase Rule
Nonelectrolyte Solutions
Concentration Units
Percent by Weight
Mole Fraction (x)
Molarity (M)
Molality (m)
Partial Molar Quantities
Partial Molar Volume
Partial Molar Gibbs Energy
The Thermodynamics of Mixing
Binary Mixtures of Volatile Liquids
Real Solutions
The Solvent Component
The Solute Component
Phase Equilibria of Two-Component Systems
Solid-Liquid Equilibria
Colligative Properties
Vapor-Pressure Lowering
Boiling-Point Elevation
Freezing-Point Depression
Osmotic Pressure
Electrolyte Solutions
Electrical Conduction in Solution
Some Basic Definitions
Degree of Dissociation
Ionic Mobility
Applications of Conductance Measurements
A Molecular View of the Solution Process
Thermodynamics of Ions in Solution
Enthalpy, Entropy, and Gibbs Energy of Formation of Ions in Solution
Ionic Activity
Debye-Huckel Theory of Electrolytes
The Salting-In and Salting-Out Effects
Colligative Properties of Electrolyte Solutions
The Donnan Effect
Biological Membranes
Membrane Transport
Notes on Electrostatics
The Donnan Effect Involving Proteins Bearing Multiple Charges
Chemical Equilibrium
Chemical Equilibrium in Gaseous Systems
Ideal Gases
Real Gases
Reactions in Solution
Heterogeneous Equilibria
The Influence of Temperature, Pressure, and Catalysts on the Equilibrium Constant
The Effect of Temperature
The Effect of Pressure
The Effect of a Catalyst
Binding of Ligands and Metal Ions to Macromolecules
One Binding Site per Macromolecule
n Equivalent Binding Sites per Macromolecule
Equilibrium Dialysis
The Standard State in Biochemistry
ATP--The Currency of Energy
Principles of Coupled Reactions
Some Limitations of Thermodynamics
The Relationship Between Fugacity and Pressure
The Relationships Between K[subscript 1] and K[subscript 2] and the Intrinsic Dissociation Constant K
Electrochemical Cells
Single-Electrode Potential
Thermodynamics of Electrochemical Cells
The Nernst Equation
Temperature Dependence of EMF
Types of Electrodes
Metal Electrodes
Gas Electrodes
Metal-Insoluble Salt Electrodes
The Glass Electrode
Ion-Selective Electrodes
Types of Electrochemical Cells
Concentration Cells
Fuel Cells
Applications of EMF Measurements
Determination of Activity Coefficients
Determination of pH
Potentiometric Titration of Redox Reactions
Biological Oxidation
The Chemiosmotic Theory of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Membrane Potential
The Goldman Equation
The Action Potential
Acids and Bases
Definitions of Acids and Bases
Dissociation of Acids and Bases
The Ion Product of Water and the pH Scale
The Relationship Between the Dissociation Constant of an Acid and Its Conjugate Base
Salt Hydrolysis
Acid-Base Titrations
Acid-Base Indicators
Diprotic and Polyprotic Acids
Amino Acids
Dissociation of Amino Acids
The Isoelectric Point (pI)
Buffer Solutions
The Effect of Ionic Strength and Temperature on Buffer Solutions
Preparing a Buffer Solution With a Specific pH
Buffer Capacity
Maintaining the pH of Blood
A More Exact Treatment of Acid-Base Equilibria
Chemical Kinetics
Reaction Rate
Reaction Order
Zero-Order Reactions
First-Order Reactions
Second-Order Reactions
Determination of Reaction Order
Molecularity of a Reaction
Unimolecular Reactions
Bimolecular Reactions
Termolecular Reactions
More Complex Reactions
Reversible Reactions
Consecutive Reactions
Chain Reactions
The Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rates
The Arrhenius Equation
Potential-Energy Surfaces
Theories of Reaction Rates
Collision Theory
Transition-State Theory
Thermodynamic Formulation of Transition-State Theory
Isotope Effects in Chemical Reactions
Reactions in Solution
Fast Reactions in Solution
The Flow Method
The Relaxation Method
Oscillating Reactions
Derivation of Equation 12.9
Derivation of Equation 12.38
Enzyme Kinetics
General Principles of Catalysis
Enzyme Catalysis
The Equations of Enzyme Kinetics
Michaelis-Menten Kinetics
Steady-State Kinetics
The Significance of K[subscript M] and V[subscript max]
Chymotrypsin: A Case Study
Multisubstrate Systems
The Sequential Mechanism
The Nonsequential or "Ping-Pong" Mechanism
Enzyme Inhibition
Reversible Inhibition
Irreversible Inhibition
Allosteric Interactions
Oxygen Binding to Myoglobin and Hemoglobin
The Hill Equation
The Concerted Model
The Sequential Model
Conformational Changes in Hemoglobin Induced by Oxygen Binding
pH Effects on Enzyme Kinetics
Kinetic Analysis of the Hydrolysis of p-Nitrophenyl Trimethylacetate Catalyzed by Chymotrypsin
Derivations of Equations 13.17 and 13.19
Derivation of Equation 13.32
Quantum Mechanics and Atomic Structure
The Wave Theory of Light
Planck's Quantum Theory
The Photoelectric Effect
Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Emission Spectrum
de Broglie's Postulate
The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
The Schrodinger Wave Equation
Particle in a One-Dimensional Box
Electronic Spectra of Polyenes
Quantum-Mechanical Tunneling
The Schrodinger Wave Equation for the Hydrogen Atom
Atomic Orbitals
Many-Electron Atoms and the Periodic Table
Electron Configurations
Variations in Periodic Properties
The Chemical Bond
Lewis Structures
Valence Bond Theory
Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals
Methane (CH[subscript 4])
Ethylene (C[subscript 2]H[subscript 4])
Acetylene (C[subscript 2]H[subscript 2])
Electronegativity and Dipole Moment
Dipole Moment
Molecular Orbital Theory
Diatomic Molecules
Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules of the Second-Period Elements
Heteronuclear Diatomic Molecules of the First-and Second-Period Elements
Resonance and Electron Delocalization
The Peptide Bond
Coordination Compounds
Crystal Field Theory
Molecular Orbital Theory
Valence Bond Theory
Coordination Compounds in Biological Systems
Intermolecular Forces
Intermolecular Interactions
The Ionic Bond
Types of Intermolecular Forces
Dipole-Dipole Interaction
Ion-Dipole Interaction
Ion-Induced Dipole and Dipole-Induced Dipole Interactions
Dispersion, or London, Interactions
Repulsive and Total Interactions
The Role of Dispersion Forces in Sickle-Cell Anemia
The Hydrogen Bond
The Structure and Properties of Water
The Structure of Ice
The Structure of Water
Some Physiochemical Properties of Water
Hydrophobic Interaction
Absorption and Emission
Regions of the Spectrum
Line Width
Selection Rules
Signal-to-Noise Ratio
The Beer-Lambert Law
Microwave Spectroscopy
Infrared Spectroscopy
Simultaneous Vibrational and Rotational Transitions
Electronic Spectroscopy
Organic Molecules
Transition Metal Complexes
Molecules that Undergo Charge-Transfer Interactions
Application of the Beer-Lambert Law
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
The Boltzmann Distribution
Chemical Shifts
Spin-Spin Coupling
NMR and Rate Processes
NMR of Nuclei Other Than [superscript 1]H
Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Fluorescence and Phosphorescence
Properties and Applications of Laser Light
Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy
Molecular Symmetry and Optical Activity
Symmetry of Molecules
Proper Rotation Axis
Plane of Symmetry
Center of Symmetry
Improper Rotation Axis
Molecular Symmetry and Dipole Moment
Molecular Symmetry and Optical Activity
Polarized Light and Optical Rotation
Optical Rotatory Dispersion and Circular Dichroism
Photochemistry and Photobiology
Thermal Versus Photochemical Reactions
Primary Versus Secondary Processes
Quantum Yields
Measurement of Light Intensity
Action Spectrum
Earth's Atmosphere
Composition of the Atmosphere
Regions of the Atmosphere
Residence Time
The Greenhouse Effect
Photochemical Smog
Formation of Nitrogen Oxides
Formation of O[subscript 3]
Formation of Hydroxyl Radical
Formation of Other Secondary Pollutants
Harmful Effects and Prevention of Photochemical Smog
The Essential Role of Ozone in the Stratosphere
Formation of the Ozone Layer
Destruction of Ozone
Polar Ozone Holes
Ways to Curb Ozone Depletion
The Chloroplast
Chlorophyll and Other Pigment Molecules
The Reaction Center
Photosystems I and II
Dark Reactions
Structure of Rhodopsin
Mechanism of Vision
Rotation About the C=C Bond
Biological Effects of Radiation
Sunlight and Skin Cancer
Light-Activated Drugs
The Solid State
Classification of Crystal Systems
The Bragg Equation
Structural Determination by X-ray Diffraction
The Powder Method
Determination of the Crystal Structure of NaCl
The Structure Factor
Neutron Diffraction
Types of Crystals
Metallic Crystals
Ionic Crystals
Covalent Crystals
Molecular Crystals
Derivation of Equation 20.3
The Liquid State
Structure of Liquids
Surface Tension
The Capillary-Rise Method
Surface Tension in the Lungs
Fick's Laws of Diffusion
Liquid Crystals
Thermotropic Liquid Crystals
Lyotropic Liquid Crystals
Derivation of Equation 21.13
Methods for Determining Size, Shape, and Molar Mass of Macromolecules
Molar Mass of Macromolecules
Sedimentation in the Ultracentrifuge
Structure of Synthetic Polymers
Configuration and Conformation
The Random-Walk Model
Structure of Proteins and DNA
Protein Stability
Hydrophobic Interaction
Protein Folding
DNA Fingerprinting
Statistical Thermodynamics
Macrostates and Microstates
The Boltzmann Distribution Law
The Partition Function
Molecular Partition Function
Translational Partition Function
Rotational Partition Function
Vibrational Partition Function
Electronic Partition Function
Thermodynamic Quantities from Partition Functions
Internal Energy and Heat Capacity
Chemical Equilibrium
Transition-State Theory
Justification of Q = q[superscript N]/N! for Indistinguishable Molecules
Review of Mathematics and Physics
Thermodynamic Data
Answers to Even-Numbered Computational Problems
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