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About the Authors | |

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Preface | |

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Introduction | |

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What Is Structural Equation Modeling? | |

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History of Structural Equation Modeling | |

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Why Conduct Structural Equation Modeling? | |

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Structural Equation Modeling Software Programs | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Data Entry and Data Editing Issues | |

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Data Entry | |

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Data Editing Issues | |

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Measurement Scale | |

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Restriction of Range | |

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Missing Data | |

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LISREL-PRELIS Missing Data Example | |

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Outliers | |

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Linearity | |

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Nonnormality | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Correlation | |

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Types of Correlation Coefficients | |

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Factors Affecting Correlation Coefficients | |

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Level of Measurement and Range of Values | |

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Nonlinearity | |

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Missing Data | |

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Outliers | |

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Correction for Attenuation | |

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Nonpositive Definite Matrices | |

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Sample Size | |

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Bivariate, Part, and Partial Correlations | |

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Correlation versus Covariance | |

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Variable Metrics (Standardized versus Unstandardized) | |

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Causation Assumptions and Limitations | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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SEM Basics | |

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Model Specification | |

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Mode] Identification | |

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Model Estimation | |

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Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Model Fit | |

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Types of Model-Fit Criteria | |

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LISREL-SIMPLIS Example | |

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Data | |

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Program | |

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Output | |

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Model Fit | |

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Chi-Square (X<sup>2</sup>) | |

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Goodness-of-Fit Index (GFI) and Adjusted Goodness-of-Fit Index (AGFI) | |

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Root-Mean-Square Residual Index (RMR) | |

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Model Comparison | |

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Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI) | |

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Normed Fit Index (NFI) and Comparative Fit Index (CFI) | |

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Model Parsimony | |

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Parsimony Normed Fit Index (PNFI) | |

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Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) | |

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Summary | |

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Parameter Fit | |

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Power and Sample Size | |

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Model Fit | |

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Power | |

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Sample Size | |

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Model Comparison | |

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Parameter Significance | |

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Summary | |

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Two-Step Versus Four-Step Approach to Modeling | |

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Summary | |

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Chapter Footnote | |

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Standard Errors | |

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Chi-Squares | |

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References | |

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Regression Models | |

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Overview | |

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An Example | |

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Model Specification | |

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Model Identification | |

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Model Estimation | |

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Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Summary | |

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Measurement Error | |

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Additive Equation | |

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Chapter Footnote | |

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Regression Model with Intercept Term | |

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LISREL-SIMPLIS Program (Intercept Term) | |

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References | |

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Path Models | |

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An Example | |

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Model Specification | |

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Model Identification | |

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Model Estimation | |

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Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Summary | |

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Appendix: LISREL-SIMPLIS Path Model Program | |

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Chapter Footnote | |

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Another Traditional Non-SEM Path Model-Fit Index | |

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LISREL-SIMPLIS program | |

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References | |

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Confirmatory Factor Models | |

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An Example | |

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Model Specification | |

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Model Identification | |

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Model Estimation | |

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Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Summary | |

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Appendix: LISREL-SIMPLIS Confirmatory Factor Model Program | |

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References | |

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Developing Structural Equation Models: Part I | |

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Observed Variables and Latent Variables | |

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Measurement Model | |

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Structural Model | |

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Variances and Covariance Terms | |

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Two-Step/Four-Step Approach | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Developing Structural Equation Models: Part II | |

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An Example | |

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Model Specification | |

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Model Identification | |

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Model Estimation | |

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Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Summary | |

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Appendix: LISREL-SIMPLIS Structural Equation Model Program | |

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References | |

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Reporting SEM Research: Guidelines and Recommendations | |

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Data Preparation | |

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Model Specification | |

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Model Identification | |

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Model Estimation | |

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Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Model Validation | |

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Key Concepts | |

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Multiple Samples | |

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Model A Computer Output | |

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Model B Computer Output | |

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Model C Computer Output | |

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Model D Computer Output | |

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Summary | |

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Cross Validation | |

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ECVI | |

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CVI | |

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Bootstrap | |

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PRELIS Graphical User Interface | |

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LISREL and PRELIS Program Syntax | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Multiple Sample, Multiple Group, and Structured Means Models | |

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Multiple Sample Models | |

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Multiple Group Models | |

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Separate Group Models | |

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Similar Group Model | |

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Chi-Square Difference Test | |

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Structured Means Models | |

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Model Specification and Identification | |

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Model Fit | |

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Model Estimation and Testing | |

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Summary | |

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Suggested Readings | |

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Multiple Samples | |

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Multiple Group Models | |

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Structured Means Models | |

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Chapter Footnote | |

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SPSS | |

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References | |

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Second-Order, Dynamic, and Multitrait Multimethod Models | |

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Second-Order Factor Model | |

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Model Specification and Identification | |

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Model Estimation and Testing | |

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Dynamic Factor Model | |

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Multitrait Multimethod Model (MTMM) | |

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Model Specification and Identification | |

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Model Estimation and Testing | |

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Correlated Uniqueness Model | |

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Summary | |

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Suggested Readings | |

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Second-Order Factor Models | |

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Dynamic Factor Models | |

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Multitrait Multimethod Models | |

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Correlated Uniqueness Model | |

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References | |

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Multiple Indicator-Multiple Indicator Cause, Mixture, and Multilevel Models | |

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Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause (MIMIC) Models | |

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Model Specification and Identification | |

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Model Estimation and Model Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Goodness-of-Fit Statistics | |

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Measurement Equations | |

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Structural Equations | |

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Mixture Models | |

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Model Specification and Identification | |

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Model Estimation and Testing | |

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Model Modification | |

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Robust Statistic | |

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Multilevel Models | |

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Constant Effects | |

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Time Effects | |

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Gender Effects | |

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Multilevel Model Interpretation | |

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Intraclass Correlation | |

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Deviance Statistic | |

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Summary | |

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Suggested Readings | |

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Multiple Indicator-Multiple Cause Models | |

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Mixture Models | |

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Multilevel Models | |

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References | |

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Interaction, Latent Growth, and Monte Carlo Methods | |

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Interaction Models | |

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Categorical Variable Approach | |

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Latent Variable Interaction Model | |

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Computing Latent Variable Scores | |

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Computing Latent Interaction Variable | |

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Interaction Model Output | |

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Model Modification | |

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Structural Equations-No Latent Interaction Variable | |

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Two-Stage Least Squares (TSLS) Approach | |

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Latent Growth Curve Models | |

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Latent Growth Curve Program | |

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Model Modification | |

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Monte Carlo Methods | |

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PRELIS Simulation of Population Data | |

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Population Data from Specified Covariance Matrix | |

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SPSS Approach | |

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SAS Approach | |

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LISREL Approach | |

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Covariance Matrix from Specified Model | |

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Summary | |

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Suggested Readings | |

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Interaction Models | |

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Latent Growth-Curve Models | |

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Monte Carlo Methods | |

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References | |

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Matrix Approach to Structural Equation Modeling | |

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General Overview of Matrix Notation | |

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Free, Fixed, and Constrained Parameters | |

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LISREL Model Example in Matrix Notation | |

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LISREL8 Matrix Program Output (Edited and Condensed) | |

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Other Models in Matrix Notation | |

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Path Model | |

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Multiple-Sample Model | |

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Structured Means Model | |

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Interaction Models | |

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PRELIS Computer Output | |

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LISREL Interaction Computer Output | |

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Summary | |

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References | |

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Introduction to Matrix Operations | |

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Statistical Tables | |

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Answers to Selected Exercises | |

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Author Index | |

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Subject Index | |