Teaching to Change the World

ISBN-10: 1612052274
ISBN-13: 9781612052274
Edition: 4th 2013 (Revised)
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Description: This is an up-to-the-moment, engaging, multicultural introduction to education and teaching and the challenges and opportunities they present. Together, the four authors bring a rich blend of theory and practical application to this groundbreaking  More...

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Book details

List price: $76.95
Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: Routledge
Publication date: 6/30/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 452
Size: 7.50" wide x 10.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.420
Language: English

This is an up-to-the-moment, engaging, multicultural introduction to education and teaching and the challenges and opportunities they present. Together, the four authors bring a rich blend of theory and practical application to this groundbreaking text. Jeannie Oakes is a leading education researcher and former director of the UCLA teacher education program. Martin Lipton is an education writer and consultant and has taught in public schools for 31 years. Lauren Anderson and Jamy Stillman are former public school teachers, now working as teacher educators.This unique, comprehensive foundational text considers the values and politics that pervade the U.S. education system, explains the roots of conventional thinking about schooling and teaching, asks critical questions about how issues of power and privilege have shaped and continue to shape educational opportunity, and presents powerful examples of real teachers working for equity and justice. Taking the position that a hopeful, democratic future depends on ensuring that all students learn, the text pays particular attention to inequalities associated with race, social class, language, gender, and other social categories and explores teachers’ role in addressing them. The text provides a research-based and practical treatment of essential topics, and it situates those topics in relation to democratic values; issues of diversity; and cognitive, sociocultural, and constructivist perspectives on learning. The text shows how knowledge of education foundations and history can help teachers understand the organization of today’s schools, the content of contemporary curriculum, and the methods of modern teaching. It likewise shows how teachers can use such knowledge when thinking about and responding to headline issues like charter schools, vouchers, standards, testing, and bilingual education, to name just a few.Central to this text is a belief that schools can and must be places of extraordinary educational quality and institutions in the service of social justice. Thus, the authors address head-on tensions between principles of democratic schooling and competition for always-scarce high-quality opportunities. Woven through the text are the voices of a diverse group of teachers, who share their analyses and personal anecdotes concerning what teaching to change the world means and involves.Pedagogical Features:Digging Deeper sections—referenced at the end of each chapter and featured online—include supplementary readings and resources from scholars and practitioners who are addressing issues raised in the text.Instructor’s Manual offers insights about how to teach course content in ways that are consistent with cognitive and sociocultural learning theories, culturally diverse pedagogy, and authentic assessment.New to this Edition:

Lauren Anderson is a doctoral candidate at UCLA's Graduate School of Education and Information Studies.

Jeannie Oakes is Director of Educational Opportunity and Scholarship at the Ford Foundation, following a 20-year career at UCLA where she was Presidential Professor in Educational Equity. She is author of the influential book, Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. Winner of the 2013 AERA Social Justice in Education Award

Jamy Stillman is Assistant Professor at the University of Southern Californiarsquo;s Rossier School of Education. Her research interests include the preparation of teachers to serve historically marginalized populations.

List of Figures, Concept Tables, and Focal Points
Introduction
Acknowledgments
Democracy, Diversity, and Inequality
The U.S. Schooling Dilemma: Diversity, Inequality, and Democratic Values
Chapter Overview
Who Are American Students?
Where Do U.S. Students Live and Go to School?
How Diverse Are Students in the United States?
Recognizing the Complexity of Identity
Inequalities Outside of School
Economic Inequality
Inequality in the Basics of Life
Geographic and Economic Isolation
Schooling Inequalities
Segregated Schools
Unequal Spending
Unequal Opportunities to Learn
Unequal Community and Peer Resources at School
Gaps in Achievement, School Completion, and College Attendance
The Struggle for Socially Just Teaching
Mauro Bautista
Kimberly Min
Mark Hill
Judy Smith
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
History and Culture: How Expanding Expectations and Powerful Ideologies Shape Schooling in the United States
Chapter Overview
A History of Increasing Expectations
Public Schools Should Secure Democracy
Public Schools Should Preserve American Culture
Public Schools Should Support the Nations Workforce and Economy
Public Schools Should Ensure National Security and International Competitiveness
Public Schools Should Solve Social Problems
A Culture of Powerful Ideologies
The Myth of Merit
Deficit Thinking, Racial Superiority, and White Privilege
Teaching for Democracy
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Politics and Philosophy: The Struggle over the School Curriculum
Chapter Overview
Basic Philosophies of Education
The Roots of Western Educational Philosophy
Philosophy in the History of U.S. Schooling
Six Philosophies of Education
Philosophy and Politics in the Struggle for the School Curriculum
Essentialist Mass Education in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries
The Emergence of the Common School
The Progressive Education Movement
Child- and Community-Centered Progressivism
Social Reconstructionism
Post-World War II Progressivism
Back to Basics
Multicultural Education
Standards and Accountability
A Call to Critique and Action for Those Who Are Teaching to Change the World
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Policy and Law: Rules That Schools Live By
Chapter Overview
The Complex Education Policy System
Three Levels of Educational Governance
How Do Policies Work?
Metaphors That Shape Education Policy
Schools as Economic Enterprises
Effects of Contemporary Policy and Law on Students, Schools, and Teachers
Accountability for Results: Large-Scale Tests and High Stakes
The Courts and Education Equity
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
The Practice of Teaching to Change the World
The Subject Matters: Constructing Knowledge Across the Content Areas
Chapter Overview
Mathematics
The Math Crisis
Traditional Mathematics:
Skills-Based and Sequential
Progressive Mathematics: Meaningful Knowledge in Context
The Math Standards: The Politics of Mathematics Continues
What Teachers Do with Math Standards
English Language Arts
Traditional Language Arts: Mastering Skills, Rules, and Forms
Progressive Approaches to Language Arts: Developing Literacies
National Standards in the Language Arts
Social Studies
Traditional Social Studies: Facts and Figures Framed by the Dominant Culture
Progressive Social Studies: Critical and Multicultural Approaches
The National History Standards: Seeking a Middle Ground
Science
Traditional Science: Topics, Subtopics, and Facts in Sequence
Progressive Science: Inquiry and Investigation
National Standards: Integrated, Socially Relevant Science for All
Access to High-Quality Science Instruction
The Struggle for the Subject Matter
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Instruction: Teaching and Learning Across the Content Areas
Chapter Overview
How Teachers Taught
Theories of Learning and Their Implications for Teaching
Learning Is Developmental, Social, and Cultural
Intelligence Is Acquired and Multidimensional
Knowledge Is Constructed and Becomes Meaningful in Context
Contemporary Theories in the Classroom
Seeing Diversity as an Asset and Every Child as a Capable Learner
Providing Opportunities for Active, Multidimensional, and Social Learning
Building on Students' Cultures and Languages
No Easy Recipes
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Assessment: Measuring What Matters
Chapter Overview
A Few Definitions
The History of Educational Testing
Testing in Early China
Testing in Nineteenth-Century U.S. Schools
The Development of Scientific Testing
Contemporary Large-Scale Assessment
Standardized Tests
Professional Guidelines for Using Large-Scale Standardized Tests
Alternatives to Traditional Large-Scale Tests
The Quest for "Next Generation" Large-Scale Assessments
Contemporary Classroom-Based Assessment
Moving Beyond Traditional Classroom Assessments
Principles to Guide Authentic Assessment
A Culture of Authenticity
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Classrooms as Communities: Developing Caring and Democratic Relationships
Chapter Overview
Caring and Democratic Classrooms
Management, Socialization, Discipline, and Control: Lasting Legacies
Classrooms as Well-Managed Factories
Classrooms as Places to Socialize Youth
Using Behavioral Psychology to Discipline and Control Students
Prevent Disruption with Consistency and Attentiveness
Child-Centeredness, Caring, and Democracy: A Second Set of Legacies
Child-Centered Schooling
An Ethic of Care
Socially Just Classrooms: Doing Democracy
Creating School and Classroom Communities Is an Ongoing, Emancipatory Struggle
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
The Context of Teaching to Change the World
The School Culture: Where Good Teaching Makes Sense
Chapter Overview
Schools as Cultures
School Cultures Shape Sense-Making
School Cultures Where It Makes Sense to Teach All Students Well
A Press for Learning and Social Justice
School Cultures Where Learning Is the Top Priority
School Cultures Where Everyone Succeeding Is the Norm
School Cultures That Foster Multicultural, College-Going Identities
Access to Learning Opportunities and Resources
Access to Adequate Resources
Access to High-Quality Teaching
Access to a Rich, Balanced Curriculum
Access to Extra Help When It's Needed
Access to Equitable Learning Time
Access to Caring Relationships and Practices
Schools as Places Where Every Student Is Known
Schools as Safe Zones: It's OK to Be Different
Schools in the Post-Columbine Era: Care in a Violent Culture
Schools in a Post-9/11 World: Care in a Fearful Culture
Schools in the Post-Katrina Context: Care in the Face of a Broken Social Contract
Professionalism, Collaboration, Inquiry, and Activism
Teachers as Participants and Professionals
Teachers as Partners in Teaching and Learning
Faculties as Inquiring Communities
Creating a Culture of Critical Inquiry
Creating Cultures Where Good Teaching Makes Sense
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
School Structure: Sorting Students and Opportunities to Learn
Chapter Overview
Labeling, Sorting, and Grouping in Today's Schools
Sorting by Academic Ability and Achievement
Sorting by Postsecondary Prospects
Sorting by "Giftedness"
Sorting by Disabilities
Sorting by English Language Proficiency
Why Do Schools Label and Sort Students?
The Social Construction of Difference
The History of Biased Sorting
Grouping Dilemmas
The Arbitrariness of Labels and Sorting
The Illusion of Homogeneity
Race and Social Class Bias
Ties to Behavioral Learning Theory and Transmission Teaching
Self-Fulfilling Prophecies and Processes
Disappointing and Enduring Outcomes
Controversy Surrounds Homogeneous Grouping
To Change or to Fix
Accommodating Diversity Without Sorting
Implementing Heterogeneous Grouping
Technical Skills, Norms and Beliefs, Politics and Power
The Struggle for Heterogeneous Grouping
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
The Community: Engaging with Families and Neighborhoods
Chapter Overview
Removing Barriers to Constructive Parent Engagement
Common Complaints About Parent Involvement
Relationships Between Families and Schools: Four Traditions
Parents Supporting the School's Agenda
Schools Meeting Families' Needs
A Legacy of Services in Low-Income Communities
Comprehensive Services in Today's Schools
Service, Power, and Deficits
Bridging the Cultures of Schools and Families
Learning with and from Communities
Bridging Students' Multiple Worlds
Bridging Through Community Liaisons
Partnering with Families and Communities in Educational Activism
A Tradition of Parent Activism
Contemporary Organizing for School Reform
Whose Agenda Is It?
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Teaching to Change the World: A Profession and a Hopeful Struggle
Chapter Overview
Teaching: A Powerful and Vulnerable Profession
The Challenge of Learning to Teach
Professionalism in the Face of Limited Professional Support
Teaching in a Changing America
Teacher Shortages and Budget Shortfalls
Teacher Retention and Attrition
Teachers' Salaries and Working Conditions
What Is a Good Teacher? A Professional and Political Question
Teachers' Unions
Strategies for a Career to Change the World
Becoming Part of a Learning Community
Becoming a Social Justice Activist
Expanding Your Professional Influence
Committing to Critique and Hope
Finding Satisfaction in the Everyday
Welcome to the Hopeful Struggle
Digging Deeper and Tools for Critique
Notes
Bibliography
Photo Credits
Index

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