Teacher-Made Assessments How to Connect Curriculum, Instruction, and Student Learning

ISBN-10: 1596670819

ISBN-13: 9781596670815

Edition: 2008

List price: $34.95
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Description: Assessment is not only a measure of student learning, but a means to student learning. Teacher-Made Assessments guides you in constructing and using your own classroom tests and rubrics to improve student achievement. A practical and accessible resource for classroom teachers, it will help you make assessment integral to both teaching and learning.

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Book details

List price: $34.95
Copyright year: 2008
Publisher: Routledge
Publication date: 5/13/2008
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 209
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.276
Language: English

Christopher R. Gareis, EdD, is Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. He is a former high school and middle school English teacher, as well as a middle school assistant principal and principal. He also directed the teacher preparation program at William and Mary as Associate Dean, and he continues the work of developing a network of partnership schools and clinical faculty in support of preservice teacher preparation and novice teachers. He has worked with school districts, state departments of education, and schools in the areas of teacher compensation, personnel evaluation, strategic planning, facilities planning, teacher preparation, mentoring, and curriculum development. In addition to these areas, his research interests include teacher leadership and principal efficacy. , is Assistant Professor of Educational Leadership at the College of William and Mary in Virginia. He is a former high school and middle school English teacher, as well as a middle school assistant principal and principal. He also directed the teacher preparation program at William and Mary as Associate Dean, and he continues the work of developing a network of partnership schools and clinical faculty in support of preservice teacher preparation and novice teachers. He has worked with school districts, state departments of education, and schools in the areas of teacher compensation, personnel evaluation, strategic planning, facilities planning, teacher preparation, mentoring, and curriculum development. In addition to these areas, his research interests include teacher leadership and principal efficacy.

About the Authors
Acknowledgements
Why Should I Assess Student Learning in My Classroom?
Teaching, Learning...and Assessment
How Do You Define Teaching?
Assessment and Learning
Assessment and Teaching: The Light Bulb
Curriculum, Instruction...and Assessment
The Roles of Assessment in the Classroom
Assessment Matters: Improving Student Learning
Assessment and the Accountability Movement
Assessment as a Professional Competency
The Purpose of this Book: Developing Teachers' Competency in Test-Making
Overview of the Book
What Makes a Good Test?
The Student Evaluation Standards
Validity and Reliability: The Core Principles of Good Assessment Practices
Validity and Reliability in Everyday Life
Validity and Reliability of Teacher-Made Tests
Validity
Construct Validity
Content Validity
Criterion Validity
Consequential Validity
Tips for Gauging Validity
Reliability
Tips for Ensuring Reliability
What Does It Mean to Have a Valid and Reliable Test?
How Do I Create a Good Test?
Unpack the Standards
Content
Level of Cognitive Demand
Putting It Together
Create a Table of Specifications
Unpacking the Standards
Mapping Objectives
Determining Emphasis
Clarify Why, When, and Where to Assess Students' Learning
Determine Types of Assessment Items
Determine the Number of Assessment Items, by Type
Write Test Items That Are Valid and Reliable
Assemble the Test
Make Sure That One Item Does Not Give Away the Answer to Another Item
Provide Clear Directions for Each Portion of the Test
Place Individual Test Items on One Full Page
Make Sure the Test Is Neat and Error Free
Provide Clear and Adequate Response Spaces
Provide Point Values for Older Students
Organize the Test by Item Type Format
Construct a Scoring Key and/or Rubric
Administer the Test
Score the Test and Analyze the Results
Conclusion: A Note about the 10 Steps
How Do I Create Good Select-Response Items?
Some Basic Rules for Writing Select-Response Items
True-False Items
Place Only One Idea in the True-False Statement
Make Sure the Statement Is Absolutely True or Absolutely False
Avoid Absolute Qualifiers Such as Always, Never, Sometimes, and Usually
Avoid Opinion Statements
Avoid Using Negatives in the Statement
Matching
Use Like Content in a Matching Set
Place Items to Be Matched on the Right With Descriptions on the Left
Keep the List Short
Provide an Uneven Number of Responses to Match
Order Responses in a Logical Manner
Multiple Choice Items
Item Stem
Make the Problem Clear to the Student in the Item Stem
State the Item Stem in the Positive Whenever Possible
Make Sure the Item Stem Does Not Give Away the Correct Answer
Emphasize Qualifiers Such as Most Likely or Best in the Item Stem
Answer Choices
Make Sure the Answer Choices Are Plausible
Make Sure Answer Choices Are Parallel in Grammar and Length
Avoid Using All of the Above or None of the Above
Place Answer Choices in a Logical Order
Avoid Clues in the Answer Choices That Give Away the Correct Response
Make Sure the Correct Response Is the Only Correct Response
A Final Consideration: Bias
Some Principles for Tapping Higher Cognitive Levels of Learning through Multiple Choice Items
Refine Your Understanding of Content and Cognitive Levels
Introduce Novelty
Focus on Complex Content
Use an Extended Prompt
Engage With Stimulus Material
Developing Valid and Reliable Select-Response Items: A Science and an Art
How Do I Create Good Supply-Response Items?
Some Basic Rules for Writing Supply-Response Items
Fill-in-the-Blank or Completion Items
Position Blanks at the End of the Statement
Limit the Number of Blanks
Keep All Blank Spaces the Same Length
Short Answer Items
Make the Question and the Nature of the Response Clear to the Student
Develop a Scoring Rubric to Accompany Each Short Answer Item
Provide Adequate Space for the Response
Essays
Make the Question and the Nature of the Response Clear to the Student
Avoid Options Within the Question
Develop a Scoring Rubric to Accompany Each Essay Item
A Final Consideration: Bias
Principles for Tapping Higher Cognitive Levels of Learning Through Short Answer and Essay Items
Refine Your Understanding of Content and Level of Cognitive Demand
Introduce Novelty
Focus on Complex Content
Use an Extended Prompt
Provide Stimulus Material
Developing Rubrics for Scoring Short Answer and Essay Items
Types of Scoring Rubrics
Checklist
Holistic Rubric
Analytical Rubric
Guidelines for Developing a Scoring Rubric
Tips for Applying a Rubric
Score Responses Anonymously
Review Scored Responses for Consistency in Scoring
Have Someone Else Score Student Responses Using the Scoring Rubric
Score Each Item With Rubric for All Students Before Moving onto the Next Item
Developing Valid and Reliable Supply-Response Items: A Deliberate Approach
Providing Feedback from Tests to Support Student Learning
Grading
How Should Classroom Tests Be Graded?
How Can Test Results Be Used to Support Student Learning?
Formative Feedback
Does Formative Feedback Support Student Learning?
What Are the Characteristics of Good Formative Feedback?
How Can I Provide Formative Feedback to Students?
Summing Up What We Know About Providing Feedback
Fostering Students' Abilities to Self-Assess: The Tacit Outcomes of Feedback
How Can I Constructively Influence Professional Practice in My School?
Assessment as a Professional Competency
Teachers Must Be Effective Creators of Assessments
Teachers Must Be Intelligent Consumers of Assessments
Teachers Must Be Effective Communicators About Assessments
Teacher Leadership: Constructively Influencing the Professional Practice of Others
Lead by Example
Collaborate With Other Teachers
Advocate for Professional Development in the Area of Assessment
Constructively Develop and Critically Review Assessments Used by School Districts
Inform Policy Regarding the Use of Assessment in the Classroom
Summing Up Teacher Leadership of Assessment
Glossary of Terms
Appendix: The Student Evaluation Standards
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