Musculoskeletal Biomechanics

ISBN-10: 1588900800
ISBN-13: 9781588900807
Edition: 2002
List price: $31.99
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Book details

List price: $31.99
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Thieme Medical Publishers, Incorporated
Publication date: 3/6/2002
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 256
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.210
Language: English

Musculoskeletal Biomechanics, an Important and Interesting Discipline at the Interface between Medical and Natural Sciences
Basic Concepts from Physics and Mechanics
Force
Moment
Pressure
Mechanical stress
Mechanical work, energy and power
Stability and instability
Vector Algebra
The trigonometric functions sine, cosine, and tangent
Representation of vectors
Addition of vectors: graphical procedure in the two-dimensional case
Addition of vectors: numerical procedure
Decomposition of a vector into vector addends
Multiplication of vectors: scalar product and vector product
Translation and Rotation in a Plane
Translation
Rotation
Combined translation and rotation
Instantaneous center of rotation
Error influences when describing a motion
Mechanical Equilibrium
Conditions of static mechanical equilibrium
Example: calculation of an unknown moment in the state of static equilibrium
Example: calculation of an unknown force in the state of static equilibrium
Example: calculation of the joint force of a beam balance in static equilibrium
Material Properties of Solid Materials
Elongation and compression
Shear
Elastic, viscoelastic, and plastic deformation
Hardness
Friction
Fracture
Deformation and Strength of Structures
Experimental determination of deformation and strength
Deformation and strength of beam-like structures
Deformation of a beam under tension or compression
Bending of a beam fixed at one end
Torsion of a beam around its long axis
Estimation of the Load Transmitted by Joints of the Human Locomotor System by Means of a Biomechanical Model Calculation
Calculation of a joint load in the static case, illustrated with the example of the elbow joint
Determination of the joint force in the dynamic case, illustrated with the example of the ankle joint
Determination of the joint force if more than one muscle or ligament force has to be taken into account
Mechanical Aspects of the Hip Joint
Load on the hip joint in the stance phase of slow gait
Influencing the load on the hip joint by gait technique, walking aids, or surgical interventions
Determination of the load on the hip joint by gait analysis
Measurement of the load on the hip joint by instrumented joint replacement
Determination of the stress distribution on the surface of the hip joint
Measurement of the pressure distribution on the surface of the hip joint
Pressure on the articular surface as a primary cause of arthrosis of the hip joint
Mechanical Aspects of the Knee
Features common to all joints, illustrated by the example of the knee joint
Motion of the knee joint
Load on the femorotibial and femoropatellar joint
Pressure distribution in the femoropatellar joint
Loading of the cruciate ligaments
Mechanical Aspects of the Lumbar Spine
Rotational and translational motion of the vertebrae in flexion and extension
Calculation of the loading of the lumbar spine: two-dimensional model
The role of intra-abdominal pressure
Calculation of the loading of the lumbar spine: three-dimensional model
Determination of the loading of the lumbar spine from measurements of intradiskal pressure
Determination of the load on the lumbar spine from measurements of stature change
Recommendations for carrying and lifting
Mechanical properties of lumbar intervertebral disks
Deformation of disks under load
Pressure distribution over the vertebral endplates
Intradiskal pressure and mechanical function of the disk
Compressive strength of lumbar vertebrae
Fracture of the vertebral arch
Sequence of events: overload injury--low back pain--work loss--disability? A warning
Mechanical Aspects of the Shoulder
Joints of the shoulder girdle
Loading of the glenohumeral joint
Stability of the glenohumeral joint
Structure and Function of Skeletal Muscle
Skeletal muscle morphology
The force--length relationship
The force--velocity relationship
Theoretical modeling of skeletal muscle behavior
Mechanical properties of tendons
Force regulation in skeletal muscles
Relationship between force and electromyography (EMG)
Muscle architecture
Skeletal muscle mechanics
Mechanical Properties of Bones
Architecture of the bone tissue
Stress and strain of inhomogeneous, anisotropic materials
Material properties of cortical bone
Architecture and material properties of trabecular bone
Measurement of bone density and bone mineral content in vivo
Determination of the fracture risk of proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae in vivo
Adaptation of bones to mechanical demands
Mechanical Aspects of Skin
Anatomical basics
Material properties
Reaction of the skin to mechanical factors
Appendix
Loading of the Lumbar Spine when Sitting or Standing
Loading of the lumbar spine, determined by measurement of intradiskal pressure
Loading of the lumbar spine, determined from measurement of stature change
Loading of the lumbar spine, determined by an EMG-assisted model calculation
Biomechanical model comparing spinal loading in sitting and standing
Conclusions
What do we Know about Primary Mechanical Causes of Lumbar Disk Prolapse?
Studies in vitro
Influence of posture on disk bulge and prolapse
Epidemiological studies of the relation between heavy physical exertions and the prevalence of lumbar disk prolapse
Conclusions and outlook
Influence of Physical Activity on Architecture and Density of Bones. An Overview of Observations in Humans
Methods for measuring bone density and bone mineral content
Effects of increased mechanical loading
Effects of reduced mechanical loading
Summary and outlook
Mathematical Description of Translation and Rotation in a Plane
Cartesian coordinates
Translation
Rotation
Motion combining translation and rotation
Determination of the imaging parameters from two points and their images
Matrix notation
Mathematical Description of Translation and Rotation in Three-Dimensional Space
Is it really necessary to deal with the description of three-dimensional rotations in the context of orthopedic biomechanics?
Matrix notation
Coordinates and vectors
Coordinate transformations
Translation in three-dimensional space
Rotation in three-dimensional space
Rotations about the coordinate axes
Combined rotation made up of a sequence of rotations
Euler and Bryant-Cardan angles
Rotation about an arbitrary axis
Motion in three-dimensional space, combined from rotation and translation. Chasles' Theorem
Calculation of the parameters of rotation and translation in three-dimensional space from the coordinates of reference points and their images
Parameters of the motion of a body observed in a laboratory coordinate system
Parameters describing the relative motion of two bodies
Dealing with Errors
Mean and variance
Biological variance
Comparing precision among measuring methods or among investigators
Error propagation
Calculation of a propagated error using the example of an angle defined by the end points of two straight lines
Method of least squares
Regression line
Fit of two sets of points by translation and rotation
Designations and Units
Index

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