Understanding College and University Organization Theories for Effective Policy and Practice - The State of the System

ISBN-10: 1579221319
ISBN-13: 9781579221317
Edition: 2007
List price: $95.00 Buy it from $80.94
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Description: This two-volume work is intended to help readers develop powerful new ways of thinking about organizational principles, and apply them to policy-making and management in colleges and universities.The book is written with two audiences in mind:  More...

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Book details

List price: $95.00
Copyright year: 2007
Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC
Publication date: 10/30/2007
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 506
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.50" tall
Weight: 2.046
Language: English

This two-volume work is intended to help readers develop powerful new ways of thinking about organizational principles, and apply them to policy-making and management in colleges and universities.The book is written with two audiences in mind: administrative and faculty leaders in institutions of higher learning, and students (both doctoral and Master's degree) studying to become upper-level administrators, leaders, and policy makers in higher education.It systematically presents a range of theories that can be applied to many of the difficult management situations that college and university leaders encounter. It provides them with the theoretical background to evaluate knowledgeably the many new ideas that emerge in the current literature, and in workshops and conferences. The purpose is to help leaders develop their own effective management style and approaches, and feel confident that their actions are informed by appropriate theory and knowledge of the latest research in the field.Without theory, organizational leaders are forced to treat each problem that they encounter as unique ??? as if it were a first-time occurrence. While leaders may have some experience with a particular issue, their solutions are usually not informed by the accumulated wisdom of others who have already encountered and resolved similar situations. The authors approach the theory of the organization and administration of colleges and universities from three quite different perspectives, or paradigms, each relying on different assumptions about the ???reality??? of organizational life in colleges and universities. The positivist paradigm???primarily an omnibus systems theory???integrates the chapters into acomprehensive, yet easily accessible whole. Social constructionism, the second paradigm, is introduced in each chapter to illuminate the difficulty of seeking and finding meaningful consensus on problems and policies, while also addressing important ethical issues that tend to be overlooked in leadership thought and action. The third paradigm, postmodernism, draws attention to difficulties of logic and communication under the constraints of strictly linear thinking that ???authorities??? at all levels attempt to impose on organizations.This ???multiple paradigm??? approach enables readers to become more cognizant of their own assumptions, how they may differ from those of others in their organization, and how those differences may both create difficulties in resolving problems and expand the range of alternatives considered in organizational decision making. The book offers readers the tools to balance the real-world needs to succeed in today??'s challenging and competitive environment with the social and ethical aspirations of all its stakeholders and society at large. The authors??? aim is to elucidate how administration can be made more efficient and effective through rational decision-making while also respecting humanistic values. This approach highlights a range of phenomena that require attention if the institution is ultimately to be considered successful.

James L. Bess is President of James L. Bess & Associates and Professor Emeritus at New York University, where he taught from 1980-2000. He is the author or editor of eight books and over fifty articles and book chapters.

Jay R. Dee is Associate Professor of Higher Education, Graduate College of Education, University of Massachusetts, Boston.

D. Bruce Johnstone is Distinguished Service Professor of Higher and Comparative Education at the State University of New York at Buffalo. He is director of the International Comparative Higher Education Finance and Accessibility Project. Dr. Johnstone has held posts of vice president for administration at the University of Pennsylvania, president of the State University College of Buffalo, and chancellor of the State University of New York system.

Dynamics of the System
Problem-to-Theory Application Table
Foreword
About the Authors
Acknowledgments
Preface
Overview
Overview of Volume I
Organizational Theory
Organizational Paradigms
Overview of Systems Theory
Key Concepts in Systems Theory
Contents of Volume II
Summary
References
Conflict in Organizations
Open and Closed Systems
History of the Development of Conflict Theory
Conflict as Structure
Conflict as Process
Social Constructionist Perspectives on Conflict
Postmodern Perspectives on Conflict
Gender Issues in Conflict Management
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Power and Politics in Higher Education Organizations
Some Definitions: Power, Authority, and Politics
Power and Rationality
Organizational Versus Personal Determinants of Power
Organizational Determinants of Power
Horizontal Power: Strategic Contingencies Theory
Vertical Power: Partisans and Authorities
Personal Power
Social Constructionist Perspectives on Power
Empowerment
Marxist and Postmodern Alternatives
Power, Politics, and Unions
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Decision Making
Decision Making as a Process
Decision Making as Structure
Participation Theories
Risky Shift, Polarization, and Social Loafing in Group Decision Making
Social Constructionist Perspectives on Group Decision Making
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Individual Decision Making
Garbage Can Model
Decisions as Role Playing
Decisions as Personality Manifestations
Decisions and Information Utilization
Risk and Uncertainty: The Gambling Metaphor
Decision Trees
Non-Decision Making
Postmodern Perspectives on Individual Decision Making
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Learning
Conceptualizations of Organizational Learning
Processes and Stages of Organizational Learning
Linking Individual and Organizational Learning
Cultural Conceptualizations of Organizational Learning
Dialectical Perspectives on Cultural Learning
Postmodern Interpretations of Organizational Learning
Contingencies Governing the Use of Alternative Learning Models
The Learning Organization
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Strategy
Strategy and the External Environment
The Linear Model of Strategy
The Adaptive Model of Strategy
The Emergent Model of Strategy
The Symbolic Model of Strategy
Postmodern Models of Strategy
Curriculum as Strategy: Application of the Five Models
Heuristics for Choosing a Model of Strategy
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Goals, Effectiveness, and Efficiency
Conceptualizations of Effectiveness and Efficency
The Goal Model
The System Resource Model
The Internal Process Model
Strategic Constituencies Model
Phase Models
Fit Models
Competing Values Model
Quality Model
Other Models of Effectiveness
The Social Construction Model of Organizational Effectiveness
Postmodern Perspectives on Effectiveness
Organizational Efficiency
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Change in Higher Education
Defining Change
Planned Change Models
Emergent Change Framework
Synthesis of the Change Models
Contingency Framework for Change
Postmodern and Critical Perspectives on Change
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Leadership
Defining Leadership
A History of the Study of Leadership
Idiographic Leadership Theories
Nomothetic Approaches to Understanding Leadership
Behaviorist Theories of Leadership
Interactive Theories of Leadership
Matching Traits, Contingencies, and Behaviors for Effective Leadership
Other Approaches to Leadership
Social Construction and Leadership
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
The End and the Beginning: Fresh Thoughts About Organizational Theory and Higher Education
Purposes of the Book-A Reprise
The Complexity of Higher Education
Perspectives of and Challenges to the Postmodern Paradigm
The Contributions of Social Constructionist Theory
Emerging Organizational Challenges in Higher Education
Conclusions
References
Subject Index
Author Index
The State of the System
Problem-to-Theory Application Table
Foreword
About the Authors
Acknowledgments
Preface
Introduction
The Application of Organizational Theory to Colleges and Universities
Colleges and Universities as Complex Organizations
Objectives of the Book
Theory
Organizational Theory
Three Perspectives on Organizational Theory
Summary
References
Colleges and Universities as Complex Organizations
Roles and Functions of Colleges and Universities
College and University National Organization
Internal Organization of Colleges and Universities
Budget Making in Academic Institutions
Personnel Decisions
Tenure and Academic Freedom
Student Participation in Decision Making
Summary
References
Approaches to Organizational Analysis: Three Paradigms
Paradigms Defined
Approaches to Paradigmatic Use
Three Paradigms: An Overview
Positivist Paradigm
The Social Construction Paradigm
Postmodern Perspectives on Organizations
Applying the Three Paradigms
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
General and Social Systems Theory
History of Systems Theory
General Systems Theory
Social Systems Theory
The Social Systems Model
Expanded Social Systems Model
Proportionate Contribution of Idiographic versus Nomothetic
The "Fit" Between and Among System Components
Extensions of Systems Theory: Alternative Paradigms
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Environments
Systems Theory and Organizational Environments
Positivist Theories of Organization-Environment Relations
Social Construction Perspectives on Environment
Postmodern Perspectives on Environment
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Conceptual Models of Organizational Design
A Brief Definition of Organizational Design
Description and Overview of This Chapter
A Brief Review of a Typical College or University Design
Differentiation and Integration: Basic Issues in Organizational Design
Alternative Modes of Designing an Organization: Mechanistic and Organic
Determinants of Organizational Design
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Bureaucratic Forms and Their Limitations
Bureaucratic Structure
Centralization, Decentralization, and Participation
Common Bureaucratic Forms
Social Construction of Organizational Structure
Postmodern Views on Organizational Design
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Roles
Organizational Benefits and Detriments of Precise Role Definition
Role Theory in Organizations
Roles as Functional Positions in Bureaucracies
Role as Expected Behavior
Social Construction Conceptualizations of Roles
Postmodern and Feminist Perspectives on Roles
Role Conflict
Role Ambiguity
Supplementary Role Concepts
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Motivation in the Higher Education Workplace
Need Theories
Process Theories
Social Construction and Motivation Theory
Feminist Theory and Motivation
Management and Motivation
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Groups, Teams, and Human Relations
A Brief History of Human Relations Theory
The Study of Groups
Informal Organization
Group Norms
Teams as Groups
Social Construction, Groups, and Teams
Postmodern Perspectives on Groups and Teams
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Organizational Culture
Conceptualizations of Culture
Schein's Framework
Organizational Culture and Organizational Functions
Positivist Research on Organizational Culture
Cultural Typologies in Higher Education
Social Constructionist Perspectives on Organizational Culture
Organizational Subcultures
Critical and Postmodern Perspectives on Organizational Culture
Culture and Difference
Using Positivist, Social Constructionist, and Postmodern Approaches
Organizational Climate
Summary
Review Questions
Case Discussion Questions
References
Conclusions: Understanding the Shape of Higher Education
Applying Organizational Theory
Subject Index
Author Index

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