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How Maps Work Representation, Visualization, and Design

ISBN-10: 157230040X
ISBN-13: 9781572300408
Edition: 2004
List price: $60.00 Buy it from $16.64
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Book details

List price: $60.00
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Guilford Publications
Publication date: 6/21/2004
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 513
Size: 6.00" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.892
Language: English

Taking a Scientific Approach to Improving Map Representation and Design
Toward Functional Maps
Cartography as Graphic Communication
Objections to Scope and Method
Art and Science
Deconstructing the Discipline
Taking a Fresh Approach to Symbolization and Design Research
Organization of This Book
How Meaning Is Derived from Maps
An Information-Processing View of Vision and Visual Cognition
Marr's Approach to Vision
Visual Cognition
Processing of Visual Stimuli
Processing of Imagery
Conclusion
How Maps Are Seen
Eye-Brain System
The Eye
Eye to Brain
Brain
Perceptual Organization and Attention
Grouping
What We Attend To
Selective Attention and Separability of Visual Dimensions
Divided Attention and Variable Conjunctions
Associativity of Graphic Variables
Indispensable Variables
Where We Attend
Location
Scale
Scanning the Visual Scene
Figure-Ground
Heterogeneity
Bottom-Up versus Top-Down Processing
Visual Levels
Perceptual Categorization and Judgment
Detection
Discrimination
Text Discrimination
Point Feature Discrimination
Pattern Discrimination
Color Discrimination
Motion Discrimination
Judging Order
Judging Relative Manitude
Perceiving Depth from a Two-Dimensional Scene
A Taxonomy of Depth Cues
Applying Depth Cues to Maps
Physiological Approaches
Perspective Approaches
Nonperspective Approaches
Summary
How Maps Are Understood: Visual Array to Visual Description [left and right arrow] Kowledge Schemata [left and right arrow] Cognitive Representation
Mental Categories
Prototype Effects
Family Resemblance
Fuzzy Categories
Typicality Effects
Maps as a Radial Category
Basic-Level Categories
Natural versus Cultural Category Structures
Multiple Representations
Multiple Representations: Common and Scientific
Fuzzy Representations of Well-Defined Concepts
Knowledge Representation
Kinds of Knowledge Representation
Kinds of Knowledge Schemata
Propositional Schemata
Image Schemata
Event Schemata (Scripts and Plans)
Development and Application of Cognitive Schemata
How Map Schemata Are Developed
Physiological Bases for Map Schemata
Developmental Bases for Map Schemata
General-to-Specific Map Schemata
How Map Schemata Are Selected
How Map Schemata Are Used
Conclusion
How Maps Are Imbued with Meaning
A Primer on Semiotics for Understanding Map Representation
The Nature of Signs
Models of the Sign
Typology of Signs
Typology of Discourse
How Signs Signify: Specificity or Levels of Meaning
Typology of Comprehension (or Miscomprehension)
The Nature of Sign Systems
Dimensions of Semiosis
Systemology
Semiotic Economy
Simultaneity versus Articulation
Combinatorial Relations
Application of the Semiotic Approach to Map Representation
A Functional Approach to Map Representation: The Semantics and Syntactics of Map Signs
The Nature of Map Signs-Map Semantics
Sign-Vehicle as Mediator
Referent as Mediator
Interpretant as Mediator
The Nature of Map Sign Systems-Map Syntactics: Logical Interrelationships
Visual Variables and Syntactic Rules
Static Visual Maps
Static Tactile Maps
Dynamic Visual Maps
Dynamic Audio Maps
Sign-Vehicle Sets
Multiple Linked Sign Systems
Maps as Signs
Map Sign Comprehension
Discussion
A Lexical Approach to Map Representation: Map Pragmatics
Meaning in Maps
Space, Time, and Attribute Denotation
Denoting Spatial Position
Denoting Temporal Position
Denoting Attributes of Position in Space-Time
Specificity of Signs
Singular versus General Signs
Unambiguous versus Ambiguous Signs
Monosemic versus Polysemic Sign Systems
Directness of Reference: Literality of Interpretants
Concreteness of Signs: Concept versus Phenomenon Representations
Etymology and Cultural Specificity of Meaning
Meaning of Maps
Connotative Meaning of Map Signs
Extrasignificant Codes
A Typology of Map Connotation
The Map Itself as an Implicit Code
Connotation of Veracity: Truth and Reality
Connotation of Integrity: Map Ethics
Valuative Connotations: Judgments
Connotations of Power: Territorial Control
Incitive Connotations: Persuasion to Action
Can Connotations Be Measured?
Synopsis and Directions
How Maps Are Used: Applications in Geographic Visualization
GVIS: Facilitating Visual Thinking
A Model of Feature Matching
Linking Perceptual Organization and Map Syntactics
Indispensable Variables
2-D Space
Simulated 3-D
Time
Scale and Resolution
Space
Attributes
Time
Spatial Feature Enhancement through Graphic Variable Manipulation
Using Monochrome Variables
Using Color Variables
The Role of Categories and Schemata
Conclusions
GVIS: Relationships in Space and Time
Feature Comparison: Looking for Relationships in Multidimensional Data
Space
Orientation
Color
Time
Focusing
Sound
Space-Time Processes
Categorizing Space-Time Phenomena
Mapping Temporal Entities to Display Variables
Exploring Space-Time Processes: Kinds of Interaction
Process Tracking
Postprocessing
Process Steering
Discussion
GVIS: Should We Believe What We See?
How to Judge "Truth" in GVIS
Truth of Signs in the Display
Truth of the Display as Sign: Seeing Wrong versus Not Seeing
What "Truth" Is in GVIS
Visual Thinking and Cognitive Gravity
Public Presentation and Implicit Connotation
Discussion
Postscript
References
Author Index
Subject Index

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