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American Public Policy Promise and Performance

ISBN-10: 1568029063
ISBN-13: 9781568029061
Edition: 6th 2004
Authors: B. Guy Peters
List price: $59.95
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Book details

List price: $59.95
Edition: 6th
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: CQ Press
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 576
Size: 5.75" wide x 8.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.694
Language: English

Tables and Figures
Preface
The Nature of Public Policy
What Is Public Policy?
Defining Public Policy
The Instruments of Public Policy
Law
Services
Money
Taxes
Other Economic Instruments
Suasion
The Effects of Tools
The Environment of Public Policy
Conservatism
Participation
Pragmatism
Wealth
Diversity
World Leadership
Summary
The Structure of Policymaking in American Government
Federalism
Separation of Powers
Subgovernments
Public and Private
The Size and Shape of the Public Sector
Summary
The Making of Public Policy
Agenda Setting and Public Policy
Agenda Setting
Kinds of Agendas
Who Sets Agendas?
Pluralist Approaches
Elitist Approaches
State-Centric Approaches
From Problem to Issue: How to Get Problems on the Agenda
The Effects of the Problem
Analogous and Spillover Agenda Setting
Relationship to Symbols
The Absence of Private Means
The Availability of Technology
Policy Formulation
Who Formulates Policy?
How to Formulate Policy
Aids for Policy Formulation
Policy Design
Summary
Legitimating Policy Choices
Legislative Legitimation
Oversight
Regulations and the Administrative Process
Public Access to the Regulatory Process
The Processes of Writing Regulations
The Courts
Popular Legitimation
Summary
Organizations and Implementation
Dramatis Personae
Implementation
The Legislation
Policy Issues
Political Setting
Interest-group Liberalism
The Organizational Setting
Organizational Disunity
Standard Operating Procedures
Organizational Communication
Time Problems
Horseshoe-Nail Problems and Public Planning
Interorganizational Politics
Vertical Implementation Structures
Horizontal Implementation Structures
From the Bottom Up?
The Third Generation?
Summary
Budgeting: Allocation and Public Policy
Characteristics of the Federal Budget
An Executive Budget
Line Item
An Annual Budget
The Budget Cycle
Setting the Parameters: The President and His Friends
Agency Requests
Executive Review
Congressional Action
Budget Execution
Budget Control
Summary
Problems in the Budgetary Process
The Deficit
Uncontrollable Expenditures
Back-Door Spending
The Overhang
Intergovernmental Budget Control
Reprogramming and Transfers
Supplemental Appropriations
Accessing the Outcomes: Incrementalism or What?
Critiques of Incrementalism
Reforming Budgeting
Program Budgeting
Zero-Base Budgeting
From Scalpels to Axes: Budget Reform in the 1980s and 1990s
Gramm-Rudman-Hollings
The Balanced-Budget Amendment
The Line-Item Veto
Decrementalism
Is Budget Change Its Own Reward?
Evaluation and Policy Change
Problems in Evaluating Public Programs
Goal Specification and Goal Change
Measurement
Targets
Efficiency and Effectiveness
Values and Evaluation
Politics
Increasing Requirements for Evaluation
Summary
Policy Change
Summary
Substantive Policy Issues
Economic Policy
The Goals of Economic Policy
Economic Growth
Full Employment
Stable Prices
A Positive Balance of Payments
Structural Change
The Instruments of Economic Policy
Fiscal Policy
Monetary Policy
Regulations and Control
Public Support for Business
Public Ownership
Incentives
Moral Suasion
Summary
Tax Policy
Public Opinion and Taxation
Fairness
Value for Money
Choices in Tax Policy
Collectibility
Fiscal Neutrality
Buoyancy
Distributive Effects
Visibility
The Politics of Tax Reform
Tax Reform in the 1990s and Beyond
Tax Reform in the Bush Administration
Proposals for Further Fundamental Reform
Conclusion
Health Care Policies
Problems in Health Care
Access to Medical Care
Cost
Quality
Public Programs in Health Care
Medicare
Medicaid
Health Maintenance Organizations: Managing Managed Care
Health Care Regulation
Hospital Costs
Health Care Quality
Drug Regulation
Summary
The Pursuit of National Health Insurance
"Play or Pay"
Canadian-Style Comprehensive Coverage
The George H. W. Bush Administration
The Clinton Administration Plan and Its Alternatives
Summary
Conclusion
Income Maintenance: Social Security and Welfare
Social Insurance
Problems in Social Security
Social Security and the Economy
Financing Social Security
Reforming Social Security
Radical Reforms
Summary
Means-Tested Programs
AFDC and PRWORA: From Welfare to Workfare
The Family Support Act
The 1996 Reforms
Implementing Workfare
Alternatives for Further Reform of Income Support
The War on Poverty
Other Means-Tested Programs
The Persistence of Poverty in the United States
The Homeless
Private Social Programs
Summary
Educational Policy
Background
The Federal Government's Role in Education
The George H. W. Bush Administration
The Clinton Administration
Local Financing and the Federal Role
Higher Education
Funding for Higher Education
Elementary and Secondary Education
Issues of Educational Policy
Quality of Education
Vouchers and "Choice"
Competency Testing
Testing Teacher Competence
School Facilities
The Separation of Church and State
Unionization and Management
Equalization of Resources
Desegregation and Busing
Higher Education Costs
Summary
Energy and the Environment
Energy: Problems and Policies
Energy Sources
Natural Gas
Coal
Nuclear Power
Other Energy Sources in Use
Unconventional Energy Source
Policy Options
The States and Energy Policy
Hard and Soft Energy Options
Environmental Policies
The Politics of Pollution
The Legislation
Toxic Waste
Endangered Species Act
Implementation of Environmental Controls
Alternatives to Regulation
Protective Policies: Defense and Law Enforcement
Defense Policy
The Environment of Defense Policy
Technology
Public Opinion
U.S. Force Configurations
Problems of Defense Policy
Military Procurement
Updating the Strategic Deterrent
The All-Volunteer Military
Other Personnel Issues
Conventional Forces and Strategies
Defense and/or Jobs
Law Enforcement
Federal Law Enforcement
Federal Support to State and Local Governments
Issues in Law Enforcement Policy
The Causes of Crime
Gun Control
The Death Penalty
The Rights of the Accused
Youth Crime
The Clinton Crime Bill
Conclusion
Culture Wars in American Politics: Regulating Social Life
Abortion and Reproductive Rights
The Rhetoric of Abortion Politics
Political and Policy Reactions to Roe and Doe
Gay Rights: Politics Comes out of the Closet
Gay Rights and Public Policy
The Separation of Church and State: School Prayer and Other Issues
Summary
Policy Analysis
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Principles of Cost-Benefit Analysis
Doing Cost-Benefit Analysis
Determining Costs and Benefits
Assigning Value
Discounting
Choosing among Projects
Extensions
Criticism and Modification
Ethical Analysis of Public Policy
Fundamental Value Premises
The Preservation of Life
The Preservation of Individual Autonomy
Lying
Fairness
The Concept of Desert
Ethics and Public Policy: Alternatives to Utilitarianism
Endnotes
Index

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