Ecosystems and Human Health Toxicology and Environmental Hazards

ISBN-10: 1566705681
ISBN-13: 9781566705684
Edition: 2nd 2001 (Revised)
Authors: Richard B. Philp
List price: $172.95
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Book details

List price: $172.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2001
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 6/27/2001
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 352
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.496
Language: English

Principles of Pharmacology and toxicology
Introduction
Pharmacokinetics
Absorption
Distribution
Biotransformation
Elimination
Pharmacodynamics
Ligand binding and receptors
Biological variation and data manipulation
Dose response
Probit analysis
Cumulative effects
Factors influencing responses to xenobiotics
Age
Body composition
Sex
Genetic factors
Presence of pathology
Xenobiotic interactions
Some toxicological considerations
Acute vs. chronic toxicity
Acute toxicity
Chronic toxicity
Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis
Sites of intracellular damage
DNA repair
Genetic predisposition to cancer
Epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis
The role of cell repair and regeneration in toxic reactions
Response of tissues to chemical insult
Fetal toxicology
Teratogenesis
Transplacental carcinogenesis
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Risk analysis and public perceptions of risk
Introduction
Assessment of toxicity vs. risk
Predicting risk: workplace vs. the environment
Acute exposures
Chronic exposures
Very low-level, long-term exposures
Carcinogenesis
Risk assessment and carcinogenesis
Sources of error in predicting cancer risks
Portal-of-entry effects
Age effects
Exposure to co-carcinogens and promoters
Species differences
Extrapolation of animal data to humans
Hormesis
Natural vs. anthropogenic carcinogens
Reliability of tests of carcinogenesis
Environmental monitoring
Setting safe limits in the workplace
Environmental risks: problems with assessment and public perceptions
The psychological impact of potential environmental risks
Voluntary risk acceptance vs. imposed risks
Costs of risk avoidance
Some examples of major industrial accidents and environmental chemical exposures with human health implications
Radiation
Formaldehyde
Dioxin (TCDD)
Some legal aspects of risk
De minimis concept
Delaney Amendment
Statistical problems with risk assessment
Risk management
The precautionary principle
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 1
Case study 2
Water and soil pollution
Introduction
Factors affecting toxicants in water
Exchange of toxicants in an ecosystem
Factors (modifiers) affecting uptake of toxicants from the environment
Biotic modifiers
Some important definitions
Toxicity testing in marine and aquatic species
Water quality
Sources of pollution
Some major water pollutants
Chemical classification of pesticides
Health hazards of pesticides and related chemicals
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
Chlorphenoxy acid herbicides
Organophosphates (organophosphorus insecticides)
Carbamates
Acidity and toxic metals
Chemical hazards from waste disposal
The Love Canal story
Problems with Love Canal studies
Toxicants in the Great Lakes: implications for human health and wildlife
Evidence of adverse effects on human health
Evidence of adverse effects on wildlife
Global warming and water levels in the Great Lakes
The marine environment
Aquatic toxicology
Biological hazards in drinking water
Anatomy of a small town disaster
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Airborne hazards
Introduction
Types of air pollution
Gaseous pollutants
Particulates
Smog
Sources of air pollution
Atmospheric distribution of pollutants
Movement in the troposphere
Movement in the stratosphere
Water and soil transport of air pollutants
Types of pollutants
Gaseous pollutants
Particulate pollutants
Health effects of air pollution
Acute effects
Chronic effects
Air pollution in the workplace
Asbestos
Silicosis
Pyrolysis of plastics
Dust
CO and NO[subscript 2]
Multiple chemical sensitivity
Chemical impact of pollutants on the environment
Sulfur dioxide and acid rain
The chemistry of ozone
Chlorine
Global warming
Water
Carbon dioxide
Methane
Subtle greenhouse effects
Global cooling: new Ice Age?
Sulfur dioxide
Motor vehicle exhaust
Natural factors and climate change
Remedies
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 3
Case study 4
Case study 5
Case study 6
Case study 7
Case study 8
Halogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons
Introduction
Early examples of toxicity from halogenated hydrocarbons
Physicochemical characteristics and classes of halogenated hydrocarbons
Antibacterial disinfectants
Herbicides
Dioxin (TCDD) toxicity
The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and enzyme induction
Paraquat toxicity
Insecticides
Industrial and commercial chemicals
Solvents
Trihalomethanes (THMs)
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 9
Case study 10
Toxicity of metals
Introduction
Lead (Pb)
Toxicokinetics of lead
Cellular toxicity of lead
Fetal toxicity
Treatment
Mercury (Hg)
Elemental mercury toxicity
Inorganic mercurial salts
Organic mercurials
Mechanism of mercury toxicity
Treatment of mercury poisoning
The Grassy Narrows story
Cadmium (Cd)
Cadmium toxicokinetics
Cadmium toxicity
Treatment
Arsenic (As)
Toxicokinetics of arsenicals
Toxicity
Treatment
Environmental effects of arsenic
Chromium (Cr)
Other metals
Metallothioneins
Carcinogenicity of metals
Unusual sources of heavy metal exposure
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 11
Case study 12
Case study 13
Organic solvents and related chemicals
Introduction
Classes of solvents
Aliphatic hydrocarbons
Halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons
Aliphatic alcohols
Glycols and glycol ethers
Aromatic hydrocarbons
Solvent-related cancer in the workplace
Benzene
Bis(chloromethyl) ether (BCME)
Dimethylformamide (DMF) and glycol ethers
Ethylene oxide (CH[subscript 2]CH[subscript 2]O)
Factors influencing the risk of a toxic reaction
Non-occupational exposures to solvents
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 14
Case studies 15 and 16
Case study 15
Case study 16
Food additives, drug residues and other food toxicants
Food additives
Food and drug regulations
Some types of food additives
Artificial food colors
Emulsifiers
Preservatives and anti-oxidants
Artificial sweeteners
Flavor enhancers
Drug residues
Antibiotics and drug resistance
Infectious diseases
Allergy
Diethylstilbestrol
Bovine growth hormone
Natural toxicants and carcinogens in human foods
Some natural toxicants
Favism
Herbal remedies
Natural carcinogens in foods
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 17
Pesticides
Introduction
Classes of insecticides
Organochlorines (chlorinated hydrocarbons)
Organophosphorus insecticides
Carbamate insecticides
Botanical insecticides
Herbicides
Chlorphenoxy compounds
Dinitrophenols
Bipyridyls
Carbamate herbicides
Triazines
Fungicides
Dicarboximides
Newer biological control methods
Government regulation of pesticides
Problems associated with pesticides
Development of resistance
Multiple resistance
Nonspecificity
Environmental contamination
Balancing the risks and the benefits
Toxicity of pesticides for humans
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 18
Case study 19
Mycotoxins and other toxins from unicellular organisms
Introduction
Some human health problems due to mycotoxins
Ergotism
Aleukia
Aflatoxins
Fumonisins
Other mycotoxic hazards to human health
Economic impact of mycotoxins
Fusarium life cycle
Trichothecenes
Zearalonone
Vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol or DON)
Other trichothecenes
Detoxification of grains
Harvesting and milling
Chemical treatments
Binding Agents
Other techniques
Other toxins in unicellular members of the plant kingdom
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Animal and plant poisons
Introduction
Toxic and venomous animals
Toxic and venomous marine animals
Toxic and venomous land animals
Toxic plants and mushrooms
Vesicants
Cardiac glycosides
Astringents and gastrointestinal irritants (pyrogallol tannins)
Autonomic agents
Dissolvers of microtubules
Phorbol esters
Cyanogenic glycosides
Convulsants
Use in research and treatment
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Case study 20
Case study 21
Case study 22
Case study 23
Case study 24
Case study 25
Environmental hormone disrupters
Introduction
The Lake Apopka incident
A brief review of the physiology of estrogens and androgens
Mechanisms of hormone disruption
Methods of testing for hormone disruption
Some examples of xenoestrogen interactions with E2 receptors or effects in vivo or in vitro
Some effects on the male reproductive system
Modulation of hormone activity through effects on the Ah receptor
Phytoestrogens
Results of human studies
Males
Females
Effects in livestock and wildlife
Problems in interpreting and extrapolating results to humans
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Radiation hazards
Introduction
Sources and types of radiation
Sources
Types of radioactive energy resulting from nuclear decay
Measurement of radiation
Measures of energy
Measures of damage
Major nuclear disasters of historic importance
Hiroshima
Chernobyl
Three Mile Island
The Hanford release
Radon gas: the natural radiation
Tissue sensitivity to radiation
Microwaves
Ultraviolet radiation
Medical uses of UV radiation
Extra-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic radiation
Irradiation of foodstuffs
Further reading
Review questions
Answers
Gaia and chaos: how things are connected
The Gaia hypothesis
Chaos theory
Other examples of interconnected systems
A vicious circle
Domino effects of global warming
A feedback loop
Food production and the environment
Meat vs. grain
Genetically modified plant foods
The environment and cancer
Further reading
Case study reviews
Case study 1
Case study 2
Case study 3
Case study 4
Case study 5
Case study 6
Case study 7
Case study 8
Case study 9
Case study 10
Case study 11
Case study 12
Case study 13
Case study 14
Case studies 15 and 16
Case study 17
Case study 18
Case study 19
Case study 20
Case study 21
Case study 22
Case study 23
Case study 24
Case study 25

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