Psychology of Safety Handbook

ISBN-10: 1566705401
ISBN-13: 9781566705400
Edition: 2nd 2000 (Revised)
Authors: E. Scott Geller
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Book details

List price: $172.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2000
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 12/21/2000
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 560
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.596
Language: English

Orientation and alignment
Choosing the right approach
Selecting the best approach
Behavior-based programs
Comprehensive ergonomics
Engineering changes
Group problem solving
Government action (in Finland)
Management audits
Stress management
Poster campaigns
Personnel selection
Near-miss reporting
The critical human element
The folly of choosing what sounds good
The fallacy of relying on common sense
Relying on research
Start with behavior
In conclusion
References
Starting with theory
The mission statement
Theory as a map
Relevance to occupational safety
A basic mission and theory
Behavior-based vs. person-based approaches
The person-based approach
The behavior-based approach
Considering cost effectiveness
Integrating approaches
In conclusion
References
Paradigm shifts for total safety
The old three Es
Three new Es
Ergonomics
Empowerment
Evaluation
Shifting paradigms
From government regulation to corporate responsibility
From failure oriented to achievement oriented
From outcome focused to behavior focused
From top-down control to bottom-up involvement
From rugged individualism to interdependent teamwork
From a piecemeal to a systems approach
From fault finding to fact finding
From reactive to proactive
From quick fix to continuous improvement
From priority to value
Enduring values
In conclusion
References
Human barriers to safety
The complexity of people
Fighting human nature
Learning to be at-risk
Dimensions of human nature
Cognitive failures
Capture errors
Description errors
Loss-of-activation errors
Mode errors
Mistakes and calculated risks
In summary
Interpersonal factors
Peer influence
Power of authority
In conclusion
References
Sensation, perception, and perceived risk
An example of selective sensation or perception
Biased by context
Biased by our past
Relevance to achieving a Total Safety Culture
Perceived risk
Real vs. perceived risk
The power of choice
Familiarity breeds complacency
The power of publicity
Sympathy for victims
Understood and controllable hazards
Acceptable consequences
Sense of fairness
Risk compensation
Support from research
Implications of risk compensation
In conclusion
References
Stress vs. distress
What is stress?
Constructive or destructive?
The eyes of the beholder
Identifying stressors
Work stress profile
Coping with stressors
Person factors
Fit for stressors
Social factors
Attributional bias
The fundamental attribution error
The self-serving bias
In conclusion
References
Behavior-based psychology
Basic principles
Primacy of behavior
Reducing at-risk behaviors
Increasing safe behaviors
Direct assessment and evaluation
Intervention by managers and peers
Learning from experience
Classical conditioning
Operant conditioning
Observational learning
Overlapping types of learning
In conclusion
References
Defining critical behaviors
The DO IT process
Defining target behaviors
What is behavior?
Outcomes of behavior
Person-action-situation
Describing behaviors
Interobserver reliability
Multiple behaviors
Observing behavior
Properties of behavior
Measuring behavior
Recording observations
A personal example
Using the critical behavior checklist
Two basic approaches
Starting small
Observing multiple behaviors
In conclusion
References
Behavioral safety analysis
Reducing behavioral discrepancy
Can the task be simplified?
Is a quick fix available?
Is safe behavior punished?
Is at-risk behavior rewarded?
Are extra consequences used effectively?
Is there a skill discrepancy?
What kind of training is needed?
Is the person right for the job?
In summary
Behavior-based safety training
Safety training vs. safety education
Different teaching techniques
An illustrative example
In summary
Intervention and the flow of behavior change
Three types of behavior
Three kinds of intervention strategies
The flow of behavior change
Accountability vs. responsibility
In conclusion
References
Behavior-based intervention
Intervening with activators
Specify behavior
Maintain salience with novelty
Habituation
Warning beepers: a common work example
Vary the message
Changeable signs
Worker-designed safety signs
Involve the target audience
Safe behavior promise
The "Flash for Life"
The Airline Lifesaver
Activate close to response opportunity
Point-of-purchase activators
Activating with television
Buckle-up road signs
Implicate consequences
Incentives vs. disincentives
Setting goals for consequences
In conclusion
References
Intervening with consequences
The power of consequences
Consequences in school
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic consequences
Internal vs. external consequences
An illustrative story
Four types of consequences
Managing consequences for safety
Four behavior-consequence contingencies for motivational intervention
The case against negative consequences
Discipline and involvement
"Dos" and "don'ts" of safety rewards
Doing it wrong
Doing it right
An exemplary incentive/reward program
Safety thank-you cards
The "Mystery Observee" program
In conclusion
References
Intervening as a behavior-change agent
Selecting an intervention approach
Various intervention approaches
Multiple intervention levels
Increasing intervention impact
Intervening as a safety coach
Athletic coaching vs. safety coaching
The safety coaching process
"C" for care
"O" for observe
"A" for analyze
"C" for communicate
"H" for help
"H" for humor
"E" for esteem
"L" for listen
"P" for praise
What can a safety coach achieve?
Self-appraisal of coaching skills
In conclusion
References
Intervening with supportive conversation
The power of conversation
Building barriers
Resolving conflict
Bringing tangibles to life
Defining culture
Defining public image and self-esteem
Making breakthroughs
In summary
The art of improving conversation
Do not look back
Seek commitment
Stop and listen
Ask questions first
Transition from nondirective to directive
Beware of bias
Plant words to improve self-image
In summary
Conversation for safety management
Coaching conversation
Delegating conversation
Instructive conversation
Supportive conversation
Recognizing safety achievement
Recognize during or immediately after safe behavior
Make recognition personal for both parties
Connect specific behavior with general higher-level praise
Deliver recognition privately and one-on-one
Let recognition stand alone and soak in
Use tangibles for symbolic value only
Secondhand recognition has special advantages
Receiving recognition well
Avoid denial and disclaimer statements
Listen attentively with genuine appreciation
Relive recognition later for self-motivation
Show sincere appreciation
Recognize the person for recognizing you
Embrace the reciprocity principle
Ask for recognition when deserved but not forthcoming
Quality safety celebrations
Do not announce celebrations for injury reduction
Celebrate the outcome but focus on the journey
Show top-down support but facilitate bottom-up involvement
Relive the journey toward injury reduction
Facilitate discussion of successes and failures
Use tangible rewards to establish a memory
Solicit employee input
Choosing the best management conversation
The role of competence and commitment
In conclusion
References
Actively caring for safety
Understanding actively caring
What is actively caring?
Three ways to actively care
Why categorize actively caring behaviors?
An illustrative anecdote
A hierarchy of needs
The psychology of actively caring
Lessons from research
Deciding to actively care
Is something wrong?
Am I needed?
Should I intervene?
What should I do?
Summary of the decision framework
A consequence analysis of actively caring
The power of context
Experiencing context
An illustrative anecdote
Context at work
Summary of contextual influence
In conclusion
References
The person-based approach to actively caring
Actively caring from the inside
Person traits vs. states
Searching for the actively caring personality
Actively caring states
Measuring actively caring states
A safety culture survey
Support for the actively caring model
Check your understanding
Theoretical support for the actively caring model
Research support for the actively caring model
Self-esteem
Personal control
Optimism
Belonging
Direct test of the actively caring model
Actively caring and emotional intelligence
Safety, emotions, and impulse control
Nurturing emotional intelligence
In conclusion
References
Increasing actively caring behaviors
Enhancing the actively caring person states
Self-esteem
Self-efficacy
Personal control
The power of choice
Optimism
Belonging
Directly increasing actively caring behaviors
Education and training
Consequences for actively caring
The reciprocity principle
Reciprocity: "Do for me and I'll do for you"
Commitment and consistency
Some influence techniques can stifle trust
Reinforcers vs. rewards
In conclusion
References
Putting it all together
Promoting high-performance teamwork
Paradigm shifts for teamwork
From individual to team performance
From individual jobs to team tasks
From competitive rewards to rewards for cooperation
From self-dependence to team-dependence
From one-to-one communication to group interaction
When teams do not work well
Group gambles
Overcoming groupthink
Cultivating high-performance teamwork
Selecting team members
Clarify the assignment
Establish a team charter
Develop an action plan
Make it happen
Evaluate team performance
Disband, restructure, or renew the team
In summary
The developmental stages of teamwork
Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning
In conclusion
References
Evaluating for continuous improvement
Measuring the right stuff
Limitations of performance appraisals
What is performance improvement?
Developing a comprehensive evaluation process
What to measure?
Evaluating environmental conditions
Evaluating work practices
Evaluating person factors
Reliability and validity
Cooking numbers for evaluation
What do the numbers mean?
An exemplar
Evaluating costs and benefits
You cannot measure everything
In conclusion
References
Obtaining and maintaining involvement
Starting the process
Management support
Creating a Safety Steering Team
Developing evaluation procedures
Setting up an education and training process
Sustaining the process
Awareness support--activators
Performance feedback--consequences
Tangible consequences
Ongoing measurement and evaluation
Follow-up instruction/booster sessions
Involvement of contractors
Trouble shooting and fine-tuning
Cultivating continuous support
Where are the safety leaders?
Safety management vs. safety leadership
Communication to sell the process
Overcoming resistance to change
Planning for safety generalization
Building and sustaining momentum
Relevance to industrial safety and health
Achievement of the team
Atmosphere of the culture
Attitude of the leaders
In conclusion
References
Reviewing the principles
The 50 principles
In conclusion
References
Subject Index
Name Index

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