Clinical Applications of the Auditory Brainstem Response

ISBN-10: 1565932005
ISBN-13: 9781565932005
Edition: 1998
Authors: Linda J. Hood
List price: $167.95 Buy it from $140.81
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Description: Focusing on the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and its applications in evaluating neural disorders and hearing sensitivity, Clinical Applications of the Auditory Brainstem Response is an essential tool for every audiologist. This practical,  More...

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Book details

List price: $167.95
Copyright year: 1998
Publisher: Delmar Cengage Learning
Publication date: 9/1/1998
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 301
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.144
Language: English

Focusing on the auditory brainstem response (ABR) and its applications in evaluating neural disorders and hearing sensitivity, Clinical Applications of the Auditory Brainstem Response is an essential tool for every audiologist. This practical, hands-on manual provides the information necessary to understand the bases for and applications of the auditory brainstem response in clinical practice, presenting substantive, valuable information on both performance and interpretation of the measures.

Series Foreword
Foreword
Acknowledgments
Preface
The Normal Auditory Brainstem Response
Introduction and Overview
Historical Perspective
How the Abr Fits with Other Auditory Evoked Potentials
Overview of Applications of the Abr
Scope of Patients Who Benefit From Abr Testing
The Normal Abr
Definition of the Abr
The Normal Abr Waveform
Neural Generators of the Abr
Characteristics of A Normal Abr
Absolute Latency
Interwave Latency Intervals
Interaural Latency Differences
Latency-Intensity Functions
Rate Changes
Amplitude
Waveform Morphology and Replicability
Normative Data and Establishing Norms
Acquisition of the Abr
General Principles of Evoked Potential Measurement
Evoked Versus Nonevoked Potentials
Near-Field Versus Far-Field Recording
Neural Synchrony
Signal-to-Noise Ratio Enhancement With Signal Averaging and Time-Locking
General Recording Considerations
Test Environment
Patient Considerations
Instrumentation
Stimulus Generators
Transducers
Trigger
Electrodes
Two-Channel Recordings
One-Channel Recordings
Electrode Application and Electrode Impedance
Preamplifiers
Common Mode Rejection
Filters
Signal Averager
Display of Responses
Artifact Rejection
Data Analysis and Storage
Calibration
Specialized Techniques in Abr Acquisition
Signal-to-Noise Estimation
F[subscript SP] Averaging
Maximum Length Sequences (MLS)
Automated Identification of Waveforms
Stimulus, Recording, and Patient Factors Influencing the ABR
Effects of Stimulus Factors
Stimulus Intensity
Stimulus Rate
Stimulus Polarity
Rarefaction Stimuli
Condensation Stimuli
Alternating-Polarity Stimuli
Polarity and Peripheral Hearing Loss
Comparison of Rarefaction and Condensation Responses
Stimulus Duration and Rise Time
Stimulus Frequency
Monaural Versus Binaural Recordings
Effects of Recording Factors
Electrode Montages
Filter Settings
Time Window
One- Versus Two-Channel Recordings
Number of Sweeps
Effects of Patient Factors
Age
Gender
Age and Gender
Medication
Attention
Body Temperature
Muscle Artifact
Clinical Applications of the Auditory Brainstem Response
Clinical Applications of the ABR in Neurological Testing
Application and Procedure
Who Should Be Tested?
Test Procedures
Identification of Wavel
Use of Masking
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss
Wave V Latency
Latency-Intensity Functions in Cochlear Hearing Losses
High-Frequency Hearing Loss
Asymmetric Hearing Loss
Stimulus Polarity Interactions With Cochlear Hearing Loss
Overcoming the Effects of Peripheral Hearing Loss
Identification of Wavel
Correction Factors
Alternative Methods
Effects of Conductive Hearing Loss
Effects of Neurological Disorders
Eighth Nerve Tumors and Other Neoplasms
Normal Pure-Tone Thresholds and Abnormal ABRs
Poor Pure-Tone Thresholds and Abnormal ABRs
Neurofibromatosis
Strategies in Interpretation of Results in Patients With Suspected Tumors
Demyelinating and Other Neurological Diseases
Other Neural Disorders Affecting the ABR
Auditory Neuropathy
Fourth Ventricle Hydroencephaly
Vascular Abnormalities
Head Injury
Coma and Brain Death
Use of the Abr in Intraoperative and Intensive Care Unit Monitoring
Strengths and Limitations of the Abr in Neurological Applications
Strengths of the Abr
Limitations of the Abr in Neurological Applications
Technical Errors
Cross-Check Among Tests
Clinical Application of the ABR in Estimating Hearing Sensitivity
A Brief Historical Perspective
What Auditory Evoked Potentials Test
When to Use the Abr to Estimate Auditory Function
Clicks Versus Frequency-Specific Stimuli
Types of Frequency-Specific Stimuli
Tonebursts
Stimulus Polarity Effects With Tonebursts
High-Frequency Tonebursts
Masking Noise With Clicks and Tonebursts
High-Pass Masking of Clicks
High-Pass Masking and Tonebursts
Tonebursts in Notched Noise
Procedures in Using the Abr to Estimate Hearing Sensitivity
Test Protocols For Infants and Children
ABR to Air-Conducted Clicks
ABRs to 500-Hz Tonebursts
ABR to Bone-Conducted Clicks
Modifications to Improve Test Efficiency
Test Protocol for Older Children and Adults Using the 40-Hz Response
Steady State Responses
SN[subscript 10] Response
Use of Masking
Relation of Responses to Behavioral Thresholds
Cautions and Considerations
Neural Integrity
Collapsing Ear Canals
Middle Ear Function and Otoacoustic Emissions
The ABR Is Not a Hearing Test
Technical Errors
Testing Infants and Children With Physiological Measures
Physiological Techniques in Pediatric Audiology
Immittance and Middle Ear Muscle Reflexes
Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions
Auditory Evoked Potentials
Auditory Brainstem Response
Who Should Be Tested?
Estimating Auditory Sensitivity in Infants and Children
Examining Auditory Pathway Integrity
Middle Latency and Late Potentials
Strengths and Limitations of Auditory Evoked Potentials in Pediatric Applications
Strengths
Limitations
Newborn Hearing Screening Using the ABR
Abr Screening Methods
Retrospective Studies of Abr Testing in Newborns
Special Considerations in Recording ABRs in Infants
Electrode Montages
Number of Recording Channels
Filter Characteristics
Bone-Conduction ABRs in Infants
Waveform Interpretation and Normative Data
Ear and Gender Differences in the ABR
Relation Between ABR Thresholds and Behavioral Thresholds
Auditory Neuropathy in Infants and Young Children
Case Studies and Report Writing
ABR Case Studies
Case Study 1: Unilateral Cochlear Hearing Loss and A Normal ABR
Case Study 2: High-Frequency Asymmetric Cochlear Hearing Loss
Case Study 3: Cochlear Hearing Loss With A Negative Summating Potential
Case Study 4: Adult with Hearing Within Normal Limits and an Elghth Nerve Tumor
Case Study 5: Adult with Asymmetric Hearing Loss and an Eighth Nerve Tumor
Case Study 6: Adult with Asymmetric Hearing Loss and an Eighth Nerve Tumor
Case Study 7: Adult with an Eighth Nerve Tumor and an Abnormal Abr Rate Effect
Case Study 8: Severe Unilateral Hearing Loss and A Vestibular Schwannoma
Case Study 9: Adult with Meningioma
Case Study 10: Adult with Brainstem Gliomas
Case Study 11: Infant with Normal Hearing
Case Study 12: Child With A Bilateral Conductive Hearing Loss
Case Study 13: Child with Unilateral Atresia
Case Study 14: Child with A Moderate Sensory Hearing Loss
Case Study 15: Child With A Unilateral Sensory Hearing Loss
Case Study 16: Adult with an Auditory Neuropathy
Case Study 17: Infant with an Auditory Neuropathy
Case Study 18: Collapsed Ear Canal That Mimics A Retrocochlear Lesion
Case Study 19: Postauricular Muscle Artifact
Case Study 20: Technical Error in Electrode Connection
Reporting ABR Test Results
Abr Testing for Estimation of Peripheral Hearing Sensitivity
Sample Infant/Child Report--Consistent With Normal Peripheral Sensitivity
Sample Infant/Child Report--Consistent With Moderate Conductive Hearing Loss
Sample Infant/Child Report--Consistent With Mild to Moderate Cochlear Hearing Loss
Abr Testing for Otoneurological Evaluation
Sample Adult Report--Normal Peripheral Hearing and Normal ABR
Sample Adult Report--ABR Consistent With Bilateral Moderately Severe High-Frequency Peripheral Hearing Loss
Sample Adult Report--Abnormal ABR Consistent With Eighth Nerve/Brainstem Lesion
ABR Laboratory Exercises and Protocol Practice
Laboratory Exercises
Normal Auditory Brainstem Response
Effects of Stimulus Intensity
Effects of Stimulus Polarity
Effects of Presentation Rate
Comparison of Electrode Montages
Effects of Filter Settings
500-Hz Toneburst ABR
Bone-Conduction ABR
40-Hz Response Using a 500-Hz Toneburst
Protocol Practice
Neurological Application
Estimation of Hearing Sensitivity in Infants
Estimation of Hearing Sensitivity in Older Children or Adults
Skill Checklist
Glossary
References
Index

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