Chemical Oceanography, Fourth Edition

ISBN-10: 1466512490
ISBN-13: 9781466512498
Edition: 4th 2013 (Revised)
Authors: Frank J. Millero
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Description: Authored by an acknowledged international authority in the field, this fourth edition of a bestseller continues to be the "classic" textbook for students and a valuable reference for researchers in the fields of oceanography, environmental  More...

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Book details

Edition: 4th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 4/26/2013
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 591
Size: 7.25" wide x 10.25" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.388
Language: English

Authored by an acknowledged international authority in the field, this fourth edition of a bestseller continues to be the "classic" textbook for students and a valuable reference for researchers in the fields of oceanography, environmental chemistry, and geochemistry. Designed for both classroom use and self-study, this comprehensive survey of essential concepts incorporates a wealth of state-of-the-art reference data. Frank Millero, the longtime editor-in-chief for the journal, Marine Chemistry, maintains his trademark style of tying descriptions and theories to oceanic observations.

Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Preface to the Third Edition
Preface to the Fourth Edition
About the Author
Descriptive Oceanography
Introduction
Physical Characteristics of the Oceans
Distribution of Temperature and Salinity for Ocean Waters
Circulation and Water Masses of the Oceans
Atlantic Ocean Waters
Southern Ocean Waters
Pacific Ocean Waters
Indian Ocean
Arctic and Adjacent Seas
Closed Basins
Mediterranean Sea
Red Sea
Estuaries
Use of Chemical Tracers in Oceanography
Carbon-14
Tritium and Helium-3
Chlorofluorocarbons
The Age of Water Masses
References and Further Reading
Descriptive Oceanography
Carbon-14
Tritium
Helium-3
Chlorofluorocarbons
Age of Water Masses
Composition of the Major Components of Seawater
Introduction
The Concept of Salinity
Methods of Determination
Chloride
Sulfate
Bromine
Fluorine
Bicarbonate and Carbonate
Boric Acid and Borate
Magnesium
Calcium
Potassium
Sodium
Composition and Stoichiometry of Average Seawater
Methods of Determining Salinity
Causes of the Major Components Not Being Conservative
Estuaries
Evaporation in Isolated Basins
Admixture with Brines
Precipitation and Dissolution
Submarine Volcanism
Exchange between Atmosphere and Sea
Anoxic Basins
Freezing
Interstitial Waters
Isotopic Variations
Hydrogen and Oxygen
Deuterium
Oxygen-18
Isotopes of Sulfur
References and Further Reading
Minor Elements in Seawater
Classification of Elements
d<sup>0</sup> Cations
d<sup>10</sup> Cations
Transition Metals between d<sup>0</sup> and d<sup>10</sup>
Residence Times
Distribution of Trace Elements in the Oceans
Biological Interactions
Geochemical Balance of Elements
References and Further Reading
Ionic Interactions
Introduction
Water, the Unique Solvent
Review of the Structure of Water
Uniformist (Average) Models
Mixture Models
Ice-Like Models
Cluster Theories
Clathrate Cage Models
Significant Structure Theory and Eucken's Polymer Model
Ion-Water Interactions
Electrostriction
Proton Structure in Aqueous Solutions
Ion-Ion Interactions
Ion-Pairing Model
Specific Interaction Model
Physical Properties of Seawater
References and Further Reading
Atmospheric Chemistry
Introduction
Composition of the Atmosphere
Nitrogen Gases
Greenhouse Gases
Effects of Global Change
Effects of Global Warming on the Oceans
Loss of Ozone
The Global Sulfur Cycle
Atmospheric Aerosols
References and Further Reading
Dissolved Gases Other than C02
Introduction
Composition of the Atmosphere
Dissolution of Gases in Seawater
Air-Sea Exchange
Nonreactive Gases
Dissolved Oxygen in Seawater
Other Nonconservative Gases
Structural Aspects of the Solubility of Gases
References and Further Reading
The Carbonate System
Introduction
Acid-Base Equilibria in Seawater
Equilibria of Carbonate Species
Parameters of the CO<sub>2</sub> System in Seawater
Distribution of Carbonate Species
pCO<sub>2</sub>
pH
Total Alkalinity
Total CO<sub>2</sub>
CaCO<sub>3</sub> Dissolution in Seawater
Fossil Fuel CO<sub>2</sub> Input to the Oceans
Ocean Acidification
Effect of Ocean Acidification on the Speciation of Metals in Seawater
References and Further Reading
Micronutrients in the Oceans
Introduction
Phosphorus in Seawater
Determination of Phosphate
Distribution of Phosphate
Nitrogen Compounds in Seawater
Determination of Nitrogen Compounds
Distribution of Nitrogen Compounds
Dissolved Organic Nitrogen and Phosphate
Nitrogen-Phosphorus Ratio
Silicon in Seawater
Determination of Silicon
Distribution of Dissolved SiO<sub>2</sub>
Use of Nutrients as Water Mass Tracers
References and Further Reading
Phosphorus
Nitrogen
Silicon
Use of Nutrients
Primary Production in the Oceans
Primary Production
Phytoplankton Production
Standing Crop or Biomass
The O<sub>2</sub> Liberation Method of Measuring Primary Productivity
Uptake of CO<sub>2</sub> Method of Measuring Primary Productivity
Determining New Production
Factors Affecting the Growth of Phytoplankton
Light
Temperature
Salinity
Micronutrients and Trace Metals
Organic Factors
Growth and Distribution of Phytoplankton in the Sea
Remote Sensing Techniques
The Iron Hypothesis
IRONEX I Study
Galapagos Plume Study
IRONEX II Study
SOFeX Study
Microbial Transformations
Dissolved and Particulate Organic Compounds in Seawater
Sources of Organic Matter
Terrestrial Input by Rivers
Terrestrial Input from the Atmosphere
Additional Sources of Organic Matter
Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter
Dissolved Organic Matter
Particulate Organic Matter
Kinds of Organic Compounds in Seawater
Carbohydrates
Amino Acids and Proteins
Hydrocarbons
Carboxylic Acids
Humic Substances
Steroids
References and Further Reading
Primary Productivity
Iron Limitation
Organics in Seawater
Processes in the Oceans
Photochemical Processes in Seawater
Principles
Formation of Hydrogen Peroxide
The OH Radical
Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry
Anoxic Waters
The Black Sea
Cariaco Trench
Framvaren Fjord
The Kinetics Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Natural Waters
References and Further Reading
Photochemistry
Hydrothermal Vents
Anoxic Basins
Black Sea
Cariaco Trench
Framvaren Fjord
Kinetics Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide in Natural Waters
Glossary of Chemical Oceanography Terms
Descriptive Oceanography
Major Components of Seawater
Minor Elements in Seawater
Ionic Interactions in Seawater
Atmospheric Chemistry
Dissolved Gases Other than CO<sub>2</sub>
The Carbonate System
Micronutrients in the Oceans
Primary Production in the Oceans
Organic Compounds
Photochemical Processes
Hydrothermal Vent Chemistry
Anoxic Waters
Index 547

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