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Research Methods Designing and Conducting Research with a Real-World Focus

ISBN-10: 1452230331
ISBN-13: 9781452230337
Edition: 2014
List price: $65.00 Buy it from $54.40 Rent it from $18.27
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Description: Written by two psychologists with expertise in both teaching research methods and applying methods to diverse field settings, this advanced research methods textbook provides the tools and knowledge required to conduct relevant, high-quality  More...

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Book details

List price: $65.00
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/9/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 296
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.386
Language: English

Written by two psychologists with expertise in both teaching research methods and applying methods to diverse field settings, this advanced research methods textbook provides the tools and knowledge required to conduct relevant, high-quality research across a variety of settings. The authors have developed an engaging textbook that will facilitate knowledge acquisition and development of research skills not only while students are in the research course, but also long after as a reference throughout their careers. The book provides a comprehensive and cutting-edge presentation of existing knowledge aligned with field-specific applications, issues, and scenarios.Features:· Provides students with the skills they need to design and conduct research not just in the laboratory but also in the real world. + Offers in depth discussion on the concept of threats to validity and its importance in research design + Research issues and case studies at the end of each chapter challenge students to think critically by identifying suitable research designs and also proposing alternative designs to address validity threats+ Provides actual examples of research methodology tactics, strategy, and constraints from practitioners across the social sciences, including I/O professionals in corporate and public sector settings, school psychologists, clinical psychologists, and mental health counselors to enable the reader to comprehend the how/why/when of conducting research outside the academic world.+ Examines survey research, which has been increasingly used in myriad professional settings and rarely covered in any depth in traditional research methods textbooks.+ Discusses the scientist-practitioner gap and dilemma as it relates to applying research methods+ Contains a guide to reading, interpreting, and critiquing research articles, including explanation of research article structure, format and focus of each section, and appropriate alignment of research design with the hypothesis(as) and statistical calculations used+ Includes section on writing up research using APA Format

Preface
About the Authors
Foundation of Research Methods
Introduction to Research Methods
Research Process
Research and Experiments
How We Learn
Induction and Deduction
Basic Versus Applied Research
Practitioner Spotlight: Basic Versus Applied Research
Scientific Method
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Variables, Measures, and Hypotheses
Variables
Time Disguised
Scales of Measurement
Nominal Scale
Ordinal Scale
Interval Scale
Ratio Scale
The Meaning of True 0
Hypotheses and Research Questions
Theory-Driven Versus Data-Driven Hypotheses
Directional Versus Nondirectional Hypotheses
Descriptive Versus Causal Hypotheses
Hypothesis Summary
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Ethical and Legal Considerations in the Research Process
What Is Ethics?
Aren't Ethics and the Law the Same?
The Ethical Evolution of Research
Nuremberg Trials
Milgram's Obedience Study (1963)
Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Study (1971)
The Tuskegee Experiments (1932)
The Next Step: Ethical Standards to Ensure History Will Not Repeat Itself
The Belmont Report
Privacy Matters: What Is the Difference Between Anonymity and Confidentiality?
Deception and Debriefing
Ethics in Reporting Research Findings
Legal Spotlight: Handling Real-World Data and Ensuring Compliance in Field Settings
Health Care Settings
Further Reading: Links to Ethical Standards and Codes of Conduct
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Reliability
Reliability Theories
Goals of Reliability
Test-Retest Reliability
Interrater/Intrarater Reliability
Parallel or Equivalent Forms Reliability
Split Half Reliability
Internal Consistency/Coefficient Alpha
In-Basket Test Reliability
Reliability Summary
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Statistical Conclusion and Internal Validity
Validity and Reliability Demystified
Practitioner Spotlight: Standardized Practices?
Statistical Conclusion Validity
Design of the Methodology
Restriction of Range
Heterogeneity of Units
Statistical Conclusion Validity Threats
Extraneous Variance in Experimental Setting
Measurement of the Variables
Unreliability of Measures
Unreliability of Treatment Implementation
Components of the Statistical Analysis
Low Statistical Power
Fishing and Error Rate
The Effect of Conducting Multiple Tests
Inaccurate Effect Size Estimation
Violated Assumptions of Tests
Statistical Conclusion Validity Summary
Internal Validity
Selection
Internal Validity Threats
Ambiguous Temporal Precedence
History
Attrition
Maturation
Regression to the Mean
Testing
Instrumentation
Internal Validity Summary
Conclusion of Statistical Conclusion and Internal Validity
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Construct and External Validity
External Validity
Variation in Participants
Variation in Settings
Variation in Treatments
Variation in Outcomes
External Validity Summary
Construct Validity
Construct Validity From a Practitioner and Researcher Perspective
Construct Validity Threats
Definition of Variables
Inadequate Explication of Constructs
Mono-Method Bias
Construct Confounding
Confounding Constructs With Levels of Constructs
Researcher/Participant Issues
Reactivity to Self-Report Changes
Reactivity to the Experimental Situation
Experimenter Expectancies
Novelty and Disruption Effects
Compensatory Equalization
Market Research
Compensatory Rivalry and Resentful Demoralization
Implementation of Design
Treatment Sensitive Factorial Structure
Treatment Diffusion
Mono-Operation Bias
Construct Validity Summary
Other Validities
Face Validity
Content Validity
Criterion-Related Validity
The Varying Views of Content Validity
Convergent and Discriminant Validity
Concurrent Validity
Predictive Validity
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Research Designs
Experimental Research Designs
Research Designs
Requirements of Experimental Design
Key Elements of Experimental Design
Random Assignment Versus Random Selection
Control
Manipulation
Measurement
Experimental Research and Validity
Applicability of Random Assignment
Experimental Design Features
Between Subjects Experiments
Within Subjects Experiments
Design Features Combined
Experimental Design Summary
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
Requirements of Quasi-Experimental Design
Key Elements of Quasi-Experimental Design
Quasi-Experimental Design and Validity
Quasi-Experimental Design Features
Between Subjects Experiments
Dealing With Individual Differences
Within Subjects Experiments
Design Features Combined
Quasi-Experimental Design Summary
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Nonexperimental Research Designs
What Is Nonexperimental Research?
Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonexperimental Designs
Advantages
Disadvantages
Observation
Obtrusive and Unobtrusive Observational Designs
Obtrusive Versus Unobtrusive Reactivity: Remember the Hawthorne Studies?
Naturalistic and Controlled Observational Settings
Advantages and Disadvantages to Naturalistic and Controlled Observation Settings
Archival Data Analysis
Archival Data: Hard Copy, Electronic, and Multimedia Sources
Archival Data: Statistical Records
Survey Research Designs
Case Studies
Meta-Analysis
Nonexperimental Designs and Qualitative Data Analysis
Content Analysis
The Coding System
Practitioner Spotlight: Using Nonexperimental Designs in Human Resource Management Practices
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Survey Research Designs
An Introduction to Survey Research
Survey or Questionnaire… Tomato or Tomahto?
Questionnaire Construction
Types of Questions
Open-Ended and Close-Ended Questions
Forced Choice Items
Response Scales
Frequency Response Scales
Unipolar and Bipolar Response Scales
Graphic Response Scales
Item Quantity and Progression
Questionnaire Implementation
Sampling and Sample Size
Sampling Techniques
Advantages and Disadvantages of Survey Research Delivery Modes
Survey Research Issues
Survey Research Errors
Analyzing, Reporting, and Applying Survey Findings
Practitioner Spotlight: Organizational Survey Research/Correlational Research
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Research Interpretation and Application
Integration of Statistical Terminology With Validity and Statistical Analyses
Construct Validity and Constructs
Statistical Conclusion Validity and Statistical Terms
Alpha and Type I Error
Beta and Type II Error
Power
Descriptive and Inferential Statistics
Central Tendency
Variability
Closing Thoughts on Statistical Terminology
Statistical Analysis and Scales of Measurement
Parametric and Nonparametric Statistics
Steps to Statistical Analysis
Prediction Analysis
Statistical Analysis Interpretation
Closing Thoughts on Statistics
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Generalization of Results to Field Settings
Translating Results Into Meaningful Information
Elements of Generalization
A Final Note
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Bridging the Science-Practice Gap
Evolution of Applied Research: From the Lab to the Field
The Challenges of Applied Research
Prioritizing Needs and Handling Constraints
Maintaining Scientific Rigor Behind the Scenes
Ensuring Value for Applied Settings
Practitioner Spotlight: A Case Study From the Organizational Development Department
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Writing a Research Report
Structure of a Research Report
Title Page
Abstract
Selecting Research Articles Based on Abstracts
Section 3
Method
Results
Discussion
References
Appendices
Putting It All Together-Final Thoughts
Chapter Summary
Discussion Questions
Chapter Key Terms
Glossary
References
Index

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