How to Conduct Surveys A Step-by-Step Guide

ISBN-10: 1452203873
ISBN-13: 9781452203874
Edition: 5th 2013
Authors: Arlene G. Fink
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Description: The fifth edition of this book shares the same goals as the first, second, third and fourth editions: to guide readers in developing their own rigorous surveys and in evaluating the credibility and usefulness of surveys created by others. This  More...

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Book details

List price: $34.99
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/8/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 200
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.254
Language: English

The fifth edition of this book shares the same goals as the first, second, third and fourth editions: to guide readers in developing their own rigorous surveys and in evaluating the credibility and usefulness of surveys created by others. This edition, like previous editions, also gives practical step-by-step guidance on how to achieve the goals. The guidance centers on choosing the appropriate type of survey, writing survey questions and responses, formatting the survey, deciding on the characteristics and numbers of respondents to include and how often they should be surveyed, and analyzing and reporting the results.

Arlene Fink (Ph.D.) is Professor of Medicine and Public Health at the University of California, Los Angeles and President of the Langley Research Institute. Her main interests include evaluation and survey research and the conduct of research literature reviews as well as the evaluation of their quality. Dr. Fink has conducted scores of evaluation studies in public health, medicine and education. She is on the faculty of UCLA�s Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholars Program and is a scientific and evaluation advisor to UCLA�s Gambling Studies and IMPACT (Improving Access, Counseling & Treatment for Californians with Prostate Cancer) programs. She consults nationally and internationally for agencies such as L�institut de Promotion del la Prévention Secondaire en Addictologie (IPPSA) Paris, France and Peninsula Health in Victoria, Australia. Professor Fink has taught and lectured extensively all over the world and is the author of over 110 peer-reviewed articles and 15 textbooks.

Preface
About the Author
Conducting Surveys: Everyone Is Doing It
Overview
What Is a Survey?
Examples: Surveys to Meet Policy or Program Needs
Examples: Surveys in Evaluations of Programs
Examples: Surveys for Research
When Is a Survey Best?
Examples: From an Overly Ambitious Self-Administered Questionnaire
Examples: Surveys Combined with Other Information Sources
Self-Administered Questionnaires and Interviews: The Heart of the Matter
Questions and Responses
Example: Forced-Choice Question
Example: Open-Ended Question
Survey Sample and Design
Planning for Data Analysis
Pilot Testing
Response Rate
Reporting Results
Example 1: The Look of Survey Results
Example 2: The Look of Survey Results
Example 3: The Look of Survey Results
The Friendly Competition
Reliability and Validity
Usefulness or Credibility of Results
Costs
The Special Case of Online Surveys
Checklist for Deciding the Best Uses for Online Surveys
Guidelines for Surveyors Who Work with Commercial Survey Companies
The Special Case of Cell or Mobile Phones
Making the Decision
A Survey Continuum: From Specific to General Use
Example: Survey with a Specific Use
Example: Survey with a General Use
Ethics, Privacy, and Confidentiality
Informed Consent
Contents of an Informed-Consent Form
The Internet and Ethical Surveys
Example Questionnaire: Maintaining an Ethically Sound Online Survey
Example: Informed-Consent Form for an Online. Survey
Summing Up
Think About This
Articles
The Survey Form: Questions, Scales, and Appearance
Overview
The Content Is the Message
Define the Terms
Select Your Information Needs or Hypotheses
Make Sure You Can Get the Information
Do Not Ask for Information Unless You Can Act on It
Example: Plan for Survey of Satisfaction with the Youth Center
Writing Questions
Open-Ended and Closed Questions
Example: Open-Ended Question
Example: Closed Question
Example: Open-Ended Question for Elementary School Teaching Program
Example: Closed Question for Elementary School Teaching Program
Making the Decision: Open-Ended Versus Closed Questions
Organizing Responses to Open-Ended Survey Items: Do You Get Any Satisfaction?
Step 1: Asking Respondents' Opinions
Step 2: Coding LB/LL Data
Example LB/LL: Response Categories
Example LB/LL: Participant Responses
Step 3: LB/LL Data
Example LB/LL: Number of Responses for Each Code
Example LB/LL: Participants' Response Pattern
Example LB/LL: Summary of Responses
Rules for Writing Closed Survey Questions
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Length, Clarity, Abbreviations, and Jargon
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Concrete Questions
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Specificity of Questions
Example: Item-Writing Skills-Hidden Biases
Example: Item- Writing Skills-Hidden Biases
Example: Question-Writing Skills-Very Personal Questions
Example: Question-Writing Skills-One Thought per Question
Responses for Closed Questions
Yes and No
Example: Yes-and-No Responses
Rating Scales
Categorical or Continuous? What about Ordinal?
Example: Categorical Rating Scale
Example: Ordinal Rating Scale
Example: Graphic Rating Scale for Assessing a City Council's Effectiveness
Example: Poor Formatting of Graphic Scale
Example: Interpreting Graphic Scales
Ordinal Scales
Example: Ordinal Scale
Example: Selecting the Number of Categories
Example: Rank Order Scale
Example: Comparative Rating Scale
Checklist
Example: Checklist Responses in which Respondent Must Choose One from a List of Several
Example: Checklist Responses that Respondents Answer Yes, No, or Don't Know for Each Item in a List
Online Surveys
Example: Survey Progress Bar
Plain and Simple Survey Questions and Responses
Scaling
Additive Scales
Example: A Survey with an Additive Scale
Example: A Survey of Foreign Language Skills
Differential Scales
Example: Scoring a Differential Scale
Summated Scales
Example: Creating a Summated Scale for a Self-Esteem Survey
Example: Scoring a Summated Scale
Summing Up
Think About This
Getting It Together: Some Practical Concerns
Overview
Length Counts
Example: How a Survey's Circumstances Can Influence Its Length
Getting the Survey in Order
Example: An Introduction to a Telephone Survey and Its First Question
Example: Ordering Survey Questions
Example: Ordering Survey Questions
Example: Providing Transitions
Checklist to Guide Question Order
Questionnaire Format: Aesthetics and Other Concerns
Response Format
Example: Response Formats
Branching Questions, or the Infamous "Skip" Pattern
Example: Skip Patterns or Branching Questions
Administration: Who Gives What to Whom?
Self-Administered Questionnaires
Checklist for Using Self-Administered Questionnaires
Interviews
The Survey Is Put on Trial
Reliability and Validity: The Quality of Your Survey
Is the Survey Reliable?
Example: Internal Consistency Counts
Example: Internal Consistency Does Not Count
Is the Survey Valid?
Selecting and Adapting Surveys
Example: Excerpt from a Real Online Service Agreement for Free Survey Items (Names Changed)
Guidelines for Finding Useable and Useful Surveys in the Research Literature
Example: Search for School Dropout Surveys: Sample Findings from the Web of Science
Example: Sample Reports of Reliability and Validity in the Research Literature
Finding Surveys on the Web
Example: Search for Education Surveys: A Sample Page from the National Center for Education Statistics
Guidelines for Pilot Testing
A Far-Reaching World: Surveys, Language, and Culture
Guidelines for Translating Surveys
Example: Question about Ethnicity
Summing Up
Think About This
Articles
Sampling
Overview
Sample Size and Response Rate: Who and How Many?
Example: Random and Convenience Sampling
Random Sampling Methods
Example: Simple Random Sampling
Example: Not Random Sampling
Example: Simple Random Sampling
Making the Decision
Stratified Random Sampling
Example: Stratified Random Sampling
Making the Decision
Simple Random Cluster Sampling
Example: Simple Random Cluster Sampling
Making the Decision
Systematic Sampling
Making the Decision
Convenience Samples
Making the Decision
Other Convenience Sampling Methods
Example: Other Convenience Samples
Finding the Sample: Who Is In? Who Is Out?
How Large Should Your Sample Be?
The Standard Error
Statistical Methods: Sampling for Two Groups and an Intervention
Example: Sample Size Calculations for Sampling Two Groups and an Intervention
Subgroups, Measures, Resources, and Schedule
Five Questions to Ask When Determining Sample Size
Example: Calculating Sample Size in a Survey of Employees in an Experimental and Control Group
Example: Power to Detect Differences
Example: 80% Power and Effect
Example: Sample Size, Effect, and Power
Response Rate
Tips for Improving Response Rate
Weighting
Summing Up
Think About This
Articles
Survey Design: Environmental Control
Overview
Which Designs Are Available?
Example: Surveys with Differing Designs
Cross-Sectional Survey Designs
Example: Cross-Sectional Design
Making the Decision
Longitudinal Surveys or Cohorts
Example: Cohort Design
Making the Decision
Comparison Group Survey Designs: Quasi- and True Experiments
Example: A Quasi-Experimental Design
Comparison Group and a Longitudinal Design
Example: A True Experimental Comparison Group Design
Example: A True Experimental Comparison Group Design and a Longitudinal Design
Factorial Designs: Special Cases
Other Survey Designs: Normative and Case Control
Making the Decision
Normative Survey Design
Example 1: Normative Design
Example 2: Normative Design-Comparison to a Model
Making the Decision
Case Control Design
Making the Decision
Example: Case Control Design
Survey Design Validity
Internal Validity
External Validity
Surveys, Research Design, and Internal and External Validity
Example: Cross-Sectional Survey and Threats to Validity
Example: Cohort Design and Threats to Validity
Example: Comparison Group Design (True Experiment) and Validity
Summing Up
Think About This
Articles
Analyzing and Organizing Data from Surveys
Overview
What Is Typical Anyway? Some Commonly Used Methods for Analyzing Survey Data
Descriptive Statistics
Example: Preschool Purposes Questionnaire
Example: Frequency of Questionnaire Responses
Example: Grouped Ratings of Preschool Purposes by 50 Directors
Averages: Means, Medians, and Modes
Example: Computing the Median for an Even Number of Scores
Example: Computing the Median for an Odd Number of Scores
Variation: Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation
Correlation and Regression
Example: Rank Order Correlation
Differences between Groups
Statistical Differences
Statistical Significance
Surveying Differences: Usual Methods
Chi-Square
Example: Chi-Square
The t Test
Example: t Test
The Mann-Whitney U Test
Example: Mann-Whitney U Test
ANOVA
Risks and Odds
Example: Odds Ratio and Relative Risk
To Be or Not to Be: Statistician or Qualitative Analyst?
Content Analysis, Open-Ended Responses, and Comments
Hypothetical Content Analysis: Teasing Boys and Girls
Putting the Horse in Front of the Cart: Selecting Analysis Methods
Data Management
Creating a Code Book or Operational Manual
Example: Excerpt from the CARPS, a Survey to Detect Binge Drinking in College Students
Example: Excerpt from the Code Book for the CARPS, a Survey to Detect Binge Drinking
Establishing Reliable Coding
Measuring Agreement: The Kappa
Measuring Agreement between Two Coders: The Kappa Statistic
Reviewing Surveys for Missing Data
Entering the Data
Example: Survey Responses from Six People
Cleaning the Data
Validating Survey Data
Summing Up
Think About This
Presenting the Survey Results
Overview
Reproducing the Questionnaire
Example: Reporting Results with the Questionnaire
Example: Online Survey Statistics in Real Time
Using Tables
Example: Shell Table Describing Children in Two Schools
Example: Shell Table for Comparing Children in Two Schools
Some Table Preparation Rules
Drawing Pie Diagrams
Using Bar Graphs
Using Line Graphs
Example: Downloaded Results of a Customer Satisfaction Survey
Example: Transferring the Results of One Question into Bar and Line Graphs
Drawing Diagrams or Pictures
Example: Words and Diagrams in Survey Reports
Writing the Results of a Survey
Organizing the Report
Example: Structured Abstract of a Survey Report
Clear-Writing Tips
The Oral Presentation
Slide Presentations
Oral versus Written Reports: A Difference in Conversation
Example: Table Used in a Written and an Oral Report
Written Interpretation of the Table
Oral Interpretation of the Table
Posters
Summing Up
Think About This
Index

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