Clinical Epidemiology The Essentials

ISBN-10: 1451144474
ISBN-13: 9781451144475
Edition: 5th 2014 (Revised)
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Description: Now in its Fifth Edition,Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentialsis a comprehensive, concise, and clinically oriented introduction to the subject of epidemiology. Written by expert educators, this text introduces students to the principles of  More...

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Book details

List price: $38.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Publication date: 12/17/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 272
Size: 7.00" wide x 10.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.210

Now in its Fifth Edition,Clinical Epidemiology: The Essentialsis a comprehensive, concise, and clinically oriented introduction to the subject of epidemiology. Written by expert educators, this text introduces students to the principles of evidence-based medicine that will help them develop and apply methods of clinical observation in order to form accurate conclusions. The Fifth Edition includes more complete coverage of systematic reviews and knowledge management, as well as other key topics such as abnormality, diagnosis, frequency and risk, prognosis, treatment, prevention, chance, studying cases and cause.

Introduction
Clinical Questions and Clinical Epidemiology
Health Outcomes
The Scientific Basis for Clinical Medicine
Basic Principles
Variables
Numbers and Probability
Populations and Samples
Bias (Systematic Error)
Selection Bias
Measurement Bias
Confounding
Chance
The Effects of Bias and Chance Are Cumulative
Internal and External Validity
Information and Decisions
Organization of this Book
Frequency
Are Words Suitable Substitutes for Numbers?
Prevalence and Incidence
Prevalence
Incidence
Prevalence and Incidence in Relation to Time
Relationships Among Prevalence, Incidence, and Duration of Disease
Some other Rates
Studies of Prevalence and Incidence
Prevalence Studies
Incidence Studies
Cumulative Incidence
Incidence Density (Person-Years)
Basic Elements of Frequency Studies
What Is a Case? Defining the Numerator
What Is the Population? Defining the Denominator
Does the Study Sample Represent the Population?
Distribution of Disease by Time, Place, and Person
Time
Place
Person
Uses of Prevalence Studies
What Are Prevalence Studies Good For?
What Are Prevalence Studies Not Particularly Good For?
Abnormality
Types of Data
Nominal Data
Ordinal Data
Interval Data
Performance of Measurements
Validity
Content Validity
Criterion Validity
Construct Validity
Reliability
Range
Responsiveness
Interpretability
Variation
Variation Resulting from Measurement
Variation Resulting from Biologic Differences
Total Variation
Effects of Variation
Distributions
Describing Distributions
Actual Distributions
The Normal Distribution
Criteria for Abnormality
Abnormal = Unusual
Abnormal = Associated with Disease
Abnormal = Treating the Condition Leads to a Better Clinical Outcome
Regression to the Mean
Risk: Basic Principles
Risk Factors
Recognizing Risk
Long Latency
Immediate Versus Distant Causes
Common Exposure to Risk Factors
Low Incidence of Disease
Small Risk
Multiple Causes and Multiple Effects
Risk Factors May or May Not Be Causal
Predicting Risk
Combining Multiple Risk Factors to Predict Risk
Risk Prediction in Individual Patients and Groups
Evaluating Risk Prediction Tools
Calibration
Discrimination
Sensitivity and Specificity of a Risk Prediction Tool
Risk Stratification
Why Risk Prediction Tools Do Not Discriminate Well Among Individuals
Clinical Uses of Risk Factors and Risk Prediction Tools
Risk Factors and Pretest Probability for Diagnostic Testing
Using Risk Factors to Choose Treatment
Risk Stratification for Screening Programs
Removing Risk Factors to Prevent Disease
Risk: Exposure to Disease
Studies of Risk
When Experiments Are Not Possible or Ethical
Cohorts
Cohort Studies
Prospective and Historical Cohort Studies
Prospective Cohort Studies
Historical Cohort Studies Using Medical Databases
Case-Cohort Studies
Advantages and Disadvantages of Cohort Studies
Ways to Express and Compare Risk
Absolute Risk
Attributable Risk
Relative Risk
Interpreting Attributable and Relative Risk
Population Risk
Taking other Variables into Account
Extraneous Variables
Simple Descriptions of Risk
Confounding
Working Definition
Potential Confounders
Confirming Confounding
Control of Confounding
Randomization
Restriction
Matching
Stratification
Standardization
Multivariable Adjustment
Overall Strategy for Control of Confounding
Observational Studies and Cause
Effect Modification
Risk: From Disease to Exposure
Case-Control Studies
Design of Case-Control Studies
Selecting Cases
Selecting Controls
The Population Approach
The Cohort Approach
Hospital and Community Controls
Multiple Control Groups
Multiple Controls per Case
Matching
Measuring Exposure
Multiple Exposures
The Odds Ratio: An Estimate of Relative Risk
Controlling for Extraneous Variables
Investigation of A Disease Outbreak
Prognosis
Differences in Risk and Prognostic Factors
The Patients Ate Different
The Outcomes Are Different
The Rates Are Different
The Factors May be Different
Clinical Course and Natural History of Disease
Elements of Prognostic Studies
Patient Sample
Zero Time
Follow-Up
Outcomes of Disease
Describing Prognosis
A Trade-Off: Simplicity versus More Information
Survival Analysis
Survival of a Cohort
Survival Curves
Interpreting Survival Curves
Identifying Prognostic Factors
Case Series
Clinical Prediction Rules
Bias in Cohort Studies
Sampling Bias
Migration Bias
Measurement Bias
Bias from "Non-differential" Misclassification
Bias, Perhaps, but does it Matter?
Sensitivity Analysis
Diagnosis
Simplifying Data
The Accuracy of a Test Result
The Gold Standard
Lack of Information on Negative Tests
Lack of Information on Test Results in the Nondiseased
Lack of Objective Standards for Disease
Consequences of Imperfect Gold Standards
Sensitivity and Specificity
Definitions
Use of Sensitive Tests
Use of Specific Tests
Trade-Offs between Sensitivity and Specificity
The Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curve
Establishing Sensitivity and Specificity
Spectrum of Patients
Bias
Chance
Predictive Value
Definitions
Determinants of Predictive Value
Estimating Prevalence (Pretest Probability)
Increasing the Pretest Probability of Disease
Specifics of the Clinical Situation
Selected Demographic Groups
Referral Process
Implications for Interpreting the Medical Literature
Likelihood Ratios
Odds
Definitions
Use of Likelihood Ratios
Why Use Likelihood Ratios?
Calculating Likelihood Ratios
Multiple Tests
Parallel Testing
Clinical Prediction Rules
Serial Testing
Serial Likelihood Ratios
Assumption of Independence
Treatment
Ideas and Evidence
Ideas
Testing Ideas
Studies of Treatment Effects
Observational and Experimental Studies of Treatment Effects
Randomized Controlled Trials
Ethics
Sampling
Intervention
Comparison Groups
Allocating Treatment
Differences Arising after Randomization
Patients May Not Have the Disease Being Studied
Compliance
Cross-over
Cointerventions
Blinding
Assessment of Outcomes
Efficacy and Effectiveness
Intention-to-Treat and Explanatory Trials
Superiority, Equivalence, and Non-Inferiority
Variations on Basic Randomized Trials
Tailoring the Results of Trials to Individual Patients
Subgroups
Effectiveness in Individual Patients
Trials of N = 1
Alternatives to Randomized Controlled Trials
Limitations of Randomized Trials
Observational Studies of Interventions
Clinical Databases
Randomized versus Observational Studies?
Phases of Clinical Trials
Prevention
Preventive Activities in Clinical Settings
Types of Clinical Prevention
Immunization
Screening
Behavioral Counseling (Lifestyle Changes)
Chemoprevention
Levels of Prevention
Primary Prevention

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