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Why is My Evil Lecturer Forcing Me to Learn Statistics? | |

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What Will This Chapter Tell Me? | |

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What the hell am I doing here? I don't belong here | |

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Initial observation: finding something that needs explaining | |

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Generating theories and testing them | |

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Data collection 1: what to measure | |

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Data collection 2: how to measure | |

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Analysing data | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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Key Terms That I've Discovered | |

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Smart Alex's Stats Quiz | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Statistics (Well, Sort of) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Building statistical models | |

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Populations and samples | |

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Simple statistical models | |

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Going beyond the data | |

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Using statistical models to test research questions | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's Tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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The R Environment | |

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What will This Chapter tell Me? | |

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Before you start | |

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Getting started | |

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Using R | |

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Getting data into R | |

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Entering data with R Commander | |

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Using Other Software to Enter and Edit Data | |

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Saving Data | |

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Manipulating Data | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's Tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Exploring Data with Graphs | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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The art of presenting data | |

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Packages used in this chapter | |

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Introducing ggplot2 | |

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Graphing relationships: the scatterplot | |

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Histograms: a good way to spot obvious problems | |

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Boxplots (box-whisker diagrams) | |

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Density plots | |

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Graphing means | |

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Themes and Options | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Exploring Assumptions | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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What are assumptions? | |

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Assumptions of parametric data | |

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Packages used in this chapter | |

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The assumption of normality | |

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Testing whether a distribution is normal | |

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Testing for homogeneity of variance | |

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Correcting problems in the data | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Correlation | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Looking at relationships | |

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How do we measure relationships? | |

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Data entry for correlation analysis | |

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Bivariate correlation | |

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Partial correlation | |

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Comparing correlations | |

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Calculating the effect size | |

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How to report correlation coefficents | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Regression | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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An Introduction to regression | |

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Packages Used in this Chapter | |

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General procedure for regression in R | |

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Interpreting a simple regression | |

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Multiple regression: the basics | |

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How accurate is my regression model? | |

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How to do multiple regression using R Commander and R | |

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Testing the accuracy of your regression model | |

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Robust regression: bootstrapping | |

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How to Report Multiple Regression | |

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Categorical predictors and multiple regression | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Logistic Regression | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Background to logistic regression | |

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What are the principles behind logistic regression? | |

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Assumptions and things that can go wrong | |

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Packages Used in this Chapter | |

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Binary logistic regression: an example that will make you feel eel | |

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How to report logistic regression | |

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Testing assumptions: another example | |

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Predicting several categories: multinomial logistic regression | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Comparing Two Means | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Packages Used in this Chapter | |

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Looking at differences | |

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The t-test | |

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The independent t-test | |

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The dependent t-test | |

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Between groups or repeated measures? | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Comparing Several Means: ANOVA (GLM 1) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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The theory behind ANOVA | |

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Assumptions of ANOVA | |

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Planned contrasts | |

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Post hoc procedures | |

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One-way ANOVA using R | |

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Calculating the effect size | |

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Reporting results from one-way independent ANOVA | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Analysis of Covariance, ANCOVA (GLM 2) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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What is ANCOVA? | |

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Assumptions and issues in ANCOVA | |

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ANCOVA using R | |

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Robust ANCOVA | |

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Calculating the effect size | |

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Reporting results | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Factorial ANOVA (GLM 3) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Theory of factorial ANOVA (between-groups) | |

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Factorial ANOVA as regression | |

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Two-Way ANOVA: Behind the scenes | |

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Factorial ANOVA using R | |

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Interpreting interaction graphs | |

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Robust factorial ANOVA | |

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Calculating effect sizes | |

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Reporting the results of two-way ANOVA | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Repeated-Measures Designs (GLM 4) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Introduction to repeated-measures designs | |

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Theory of one-way repeated-measures ANOVA | |

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One-way repeated measures designs using R | |

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Effect sizes for repeated measures designs | |

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Reporting one-way repeated measures designs | |

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Factorisal repeated measures designs | |

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Effect Sizes for Factorial Repeated Measures designs | |

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Reporting the results from factorial repeated measures designs | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Mixed Designs (GLM 5) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Mixed designs | |

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What do men and women look for in a partner? | |

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Entering and exploring your data | |

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Mixed ANOVA | |

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Mixed designs as a GLM | |

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Calculating effect sizes | |

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Reporting the results of mixed ANOVA | |

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Robust analysis for mixed designs | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Non-Parametric Tests | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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When to use non-parametric tests | |

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Packages Used in this Chapter | |

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Comparing two independent conditions: the Wilcoxon rank-sum test | |

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Comparing two related conditions: the Wilcoxon signed-rank test | |

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Differences between several independent groups: the Kruskal-Wallis test | |

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Differences between several related groups: Friedman's ANOVA | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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When to use MANOVA | |

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Introduction: similarities and differences to ANOVA | |

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Theory of MANOVA | |

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Practical issues when conducting MANOVA | |

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MANOVA using R | |

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Robust MANOVA | |

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Reporting results from MANOVA | |

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Following up MANOVA with discriminant analysis | |

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Reporting results from discriminant analysis | |

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Some final remarks | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Exploratory Factor Analysis | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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When to use factor analysis | |

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Factors | |

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Research example | |

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Running the analysis with R Commander | |

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Running the analysis with R | |

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Factor scores | |

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How to report factor analysis | |

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Reliability analysis | |

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Reporting reliability analysis | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Categorical Data | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Packages used in this chapter | |

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Analysing categorical data | |

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Theory of Analysing Categorical Data | |

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Assumptions of the chi-square test | |

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Doing the chi-square test using R | |

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Several categorical variables: loglinear analysis | |

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Assumptions in loglinear analysis | |

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Loglinear analysis using R | |

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Following up loglinear analysis | |

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Effect sizes in loglinear analysis | |

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Reporting the results of loglinear analysis | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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| |

R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Multilevel Linear Models | |

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What will this chapter tell me? | |

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Hierarchical data | |

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Theory of multilevel linear models | |

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The multilevel model | |

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Some practical issues | |

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Multilevel modelling on R | |

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Growth models | |

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How to report a multilevel model | |

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What have I discovered about statistics? | |

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R Packages Used in This Chapter | |

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R Functions Used in This Chapter | |

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Key terms that I've discovered | |

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Smart Alex's tasks | |

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Further reading | |

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Interesting real research | |

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Epilogue: Life After Discovering Statistics | |

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Troubleshooting R | |

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Glossary | |

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Appendix | |

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Table of the standard normal distribution | |

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Critical Values of the t-Distribution | |

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Critical Values of the F-Distribution | |

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Critical Values of the chi-square Distribution | |

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References | |