Geological Field Techniques

ISBN-10: 1444330624
ISBN-13: 9781444330625
Edition: 2010
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Description: An up-to-date publication on geological field techniques on the market, this title covers the broad spectrum of tasks completed during geological field work. Geological Field Techniques shows how to make geological field observations and collect  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 10/8/2010
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 336
Size: 8.00" wide x 9.00" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.474
Language: English

An up-to-date publication on geological field techniques on the market, this title covers the broad spectrum of tasks completed during geological field work. Geological Field Techniques shows how to make geological field observations and collect primary geological data rather than teaching model-driven data collection. In particular the book covers the purpose of collecting different types of field data and what is appropriate for different situations and outcomes.Key Features: "Tricks of the trade" that cover less obvious practical points Flow charts to summarize the key stages in each of the data collection processes Colour coding for each chapter Extensive cross-referencing Four color throughout Authoritative source Handy formatThis book is ideal for Undergraduate earth science (and physical geography) students worldwide.

Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction
A selection of general books and reference material on geology
Books on geological field techniques
Field equipment and safety
Introduction
The hand lens and binoculars
The compass-clinometer
Orientation of a dipping plane
Orientation of a linear feature
Triangulation: Determining location using a compass
Global positioning systems and altimeters
Measuring distance and thickness
Standard thickness and distance measurements
Use of the Jacob staff to measure the thickness of inclined strata
Classification and colour charts
Hammer, chisels and other hardware
The hardcopy field notebook
The laptop, netbook or PDA as a notebook
Writing equipment, maps and relevant literature
Writing equipment
Maps and relevant literature
Comfort, field safety and field safety equipment
Clothes, backpack/rucksack and personal provisions
Field safety
Field safety equipment
Conservation, respect and obtaining permission!
Further reading
Introduction to field observations at different scales
Introduction: What, where and how?
Defining the fieldwork objective
Deciding where to do the fieldwork
Locating your position
Scale of observation, where to start and basic measurements
Regional context
Whole exposure
Hand specimens
Overview of possible data formats
The field notebook
Introduction: The purpose of field notes
Field notebook layout
Preliminary pages
Daily entries
General tips
Field sketches: A picture is worth a thousand words
General principles: Aims, space and tools
Sketches of exposures
Sketching metre- and centimetre-scale features
Sketch maps
Written notes: Recording data, ideas and interpretation
Notes recording data and observations
Notes recording interpretation, discussion and ideas
Correlation with other data sets and interpretations
Recording palaeontological information
Introduction: Fossils are smart particles
Why are fossils important?
Collecting fossil data
Fossil types and preservation
Body fossil classification
Body fossil preservation
Trace fossils
Molecular fossils
Fossil distribution and where to find them
Transported or life position?
Sampling strategies
Sampling for biostratigraphic or evolutionary studies
Sampling of bedding surfaces and palaeoecology
Estimating abundance
Presence/absence and qualitative abundance estimates
Quantitative measures of abundance
How many samples are required?
Summary
Further reading
Recording features of sedimentary rocks and constructing graphic logs
Introduction
Description, recognition and recording of sedimentary deposits and sedimentary structures
Recording sedimentary lithology
Recording sedimentary structures
Graphic logs
Conventions for graphic logs
Constructing a graphic log
Rocks in space: Reconstructing sedimentary environments and their diagnostic features
Using sedimentary rocks to interpret climate change and sea-level change
Climate change
Sequence stratigraphy and relative sea-level change
Further reading
Recording features of igneous rocks
Equipment, basic tips and safety
Field relationships of igneous rocks
Relationships with surrounding rocks
Internal architecture: Joints and veins
Internal architecture: Other exposure-scale fabrics
Mineralogy and small-scale textures of igneous rocks
Petrologic type
Mineral texture and fabric
Recent and active volcanoes
Equipment and safety
Access
Observations
Further reading
Recording structural information
Equipment and measurement
Structural measurements and notations
Brittle structures: Faults, joints and veins
Planar brittle features - orientation
Determining past motion on brittle structures
Ductile structures: Shear zones, foliations and folds
Orientation of ductile planar features
Direction of shear/stretching: Stretching lineations
Sense of shear: Kinematic indicators
Magnitude of shear strain
Fold analysis
Further reading
Recording features of metamorphic rocks
Basic skills and equipment for metamorphic fieldwork
Field relations and context
Textures
Banding
Grain textures
Reaction textures
Mineralogy
Identifying common metamorphic minerals
Using mineral assemblages
Classification of metamorphic rocks
Unravelling metamorphism and deformation
Pre-kinematic features
Syn-kinematic features
Post-kinematic features
Further reading
Making a geological map
Principles and aims
Preparation and materials
Base maps and other aids
Equipment for mapping
Location, location, location
Equipment
Using base maps
Making a field map
Information to record on field maps
The evolving map
Sketch cross-sections
Mapping techniques
Traverse mapping
Contact mapping
Exposure mapping
Using other evidence
The geological map
Inking in the field map
Cross-sections
Fair copy maps
Digital maps and GIS
Further reading
Recording numerical data and use of instruments in the field
Data collection
Instrument calibration and base stations
Survey grid
Transport and protection of the instruments
Correlation with other data sets
Further reading
Photography
Sampling
Selecting and labelling samples
Samples for thin-sections
Orientated samples
Samples for geochemical analysis
Samples for mineral extraction
Samples for fossils
Sampling for regional studies
High-resolution sample sets
Labelling samples and their packaging
Practical advice
Packing and marking materials
Extraction of samples
Concluding remarks
Further reading on scientific report writing
References
General
Fossils
Sedimentary
Igneous
Structural
Metamorphic
Mapping
Index

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