Geography of International Terrorism An Introduction to Spaces and Places of Violent Non-State Groups

ISBN-10: 1439886865
ISBN-13: 9781439886861
Edition: 2013
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Description: Providing the perspective required to understand and anticipate terrorism, this book presents an accessible, cross-disciplinary approach to managing terrorism on a global scale. The authors articulate the role of physical and human geography in  More...

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Book details

Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: CRC Press LLC
Publication date: 4/4/2013
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 258
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.122
Language: English

Providing the perspective required to understand and anticipate terrorism, this book presents an accessible, cross-disciplinary approach to managing terrorism on a global scale. The authors articulate the role of physical and human geography in terrorist ideology, operations, and haven formation and control. They supply a blend of concepts and techniques to support policy development within the governing counter terrorist community. To assist reader assimilation, the book includes maps, images, and graphics to support information, as well as updated internet downloads, resource listings, and online discussion links.

Preface
The Authors
The Links between Terrorism and Geography
Introduction
Brief Account of Geography of Present-Day Terrorism in Nigeria
The South
The North
Defining Terrorism
Terrorists, Insurgents, or Criminals?
Geography of the Definition
Motivations for Terrorism
Nationalist/Separatist
Cultural/Religious
Ideological
Context of Present-Day International Terrorism
Where Is Terrorism Located Today?
Geography, Theories of Space and Place, and Applications to Terrorism Research
Spaces of Terrorism
Geographic Space
Social Space
Virtual Space
Perceptual Space
Hybrid Space
Terrorist Places, Migrations, and Activities
Havens and Safe Houses
Safe Houses
Migrations
Migrations Driving Terrorism
Migrations Resulting from Terrorism
Diasporas and the Homegrown Threat
Scales of Terrorist Operations, Attacks, and Influence
Terrorist Attacks and Impacts on Near and Far Targets
Attack Patterns in Geographic Space
The Four Traditions of Geography and Their Applications to Terrorism Research
Geographic Theories of Territory and Conflict
Heartland Theory
The Evolution of the Insurgent State
ConflictSpace
Resident versus Foreign Fighter Terrorists: A Geospatial Concept
Geospatial Information and Technologies in the Context of Terrorism and Security
Geospatial Information
Global Positioning System
Remote Sensing
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
References
Terrorist Networks in Geographic-Social Hybrid Space
Introduction
Hybrid Space: The Intersection of Spaces
Terrorist Networks and Their Organizational Structures
Hierarchical Terrorist Network Structure
The Provisional Irish Republican Army
Hezbollah (The Party of God)
Decentralized Terrorist Network Structure
Globalization and Terrorist Network Decentralization
Benefits and Disadvantages of Decentralization
Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) (Basque Fatherland and Freedom)
Al-Qaeda (The Base) and the Decentralized Islamist Terrorist System
Leaderless Resistance and Multiple Leaders: Models of Advanced Decentralization
The Connection between the Global Jihad and Leaderless Resistance
Homegrown Terrorism
Terrorist Networks Flows
The Flow of Ideas and Information and Principles of Communication in the Information Age
Terrorists' Use of the Internet and the World Wide Web
Psychological Warfare
Transfer of Information and Data Collection
Fundraising
Recruitment and Mobilization
Material Flows
Flows of Goods and Money
The Hawala System of Money Transfer
Drug Production and Trafficking
Flows of People and Geographic Paths to Radicalization
References
The Geography of Terrorism, Aspirational Geography, and Safe Havens
Introduction
Geography of Aspirational Homelands
Kurdistan
Political and Geographical Borders
The Insurgent State as a Home for Terrorists
Naxalites in India
Havens for Terrorist Groups
Geographic Haven
Geographical Factors
Urban Havens
Other Attributes of Havens
Tamil Tigers of Sri Lanka
Measures to Diminish Geographic Safe Havens
References
Sociocultural Understanding, Geospatial Data/Technologies, and Opportunities for Countering Terrorism
Introduction
The Importance of Sociocultural Understanding (Human Geography) on Global Scale to Local Scale
Geospatial Intelligence: The Integration of Human Geography and Geospatial Technologies
The US Army Human Terrain System
Human Terrain Shift to Human Geography
Technology and War
Technologies of Geospatial Intelligence and Their Use in Terrorism and Counterterrorism
Geographic Data as Geospatial Information
Geographic Information Systems
Analyzing the Connections between Social and Geographic Space Activities
GIS-Based Spatial Analysis and Visualization of Terrorist Attacks
Viewshed Analysis: Line of Sight
Global Positioning System
Remote Sensing
Volunteered Geographic Information and Data Mining
Mobile Phones and the Ubiquity of Spatial Information and Tools
Geosensors and Geosensor Networks
Use of Geospatial Data/Information and Tools by Terrorists
Criteria for Publicly Available Geospatial Information
Final Thoughts on Geospatial Intelligence and Terrorism
References
Terrorism Risk and Vulnerability
Terrorism as a Hazard
Hazard as an Evolving Interaction of Risk and Vulnerability
Risk
Vulnerability
The BNICE Possibilities-Geographical Implications
Actions to Diminish Risk of and Vulnerability to Terrorist Attacks
Effective Planning and Response to Minimize Vulnerability
Infrastructure Vulnerability
Social Vulnerability
Mapping Vulnerabilities Using Dynamic Populations
Reduction of the Terrorist Hazard and Homeland Security
References
Influences on the Future Geography of Terrorism
Global Influences on the Location of Conflict
Global Environmental Change
Changes in Water Supply
Coastal and Estuarine Inundation
Indirect Consequences of Environmental Change
Migration
The Environmental Change-Conflict Nexus
Globalization and Terrorism
State Weakness and Vulnerability to Terrorism
Becoming Connected to the Globalizing World
Marginalized Regions and the Potential for Terror
Sub-Saharan Africa
Central and South America
The Middle East and North Africa
Southeast Asia
Eastern Europe
Globalization and Spatial Redistributions of
People and Ideas
The Spread of Organizations
References
Index

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