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Preface | |

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Acknowledgments | |

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About the Authors | |

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Overview of Scientific Research | |

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Keywords | |

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What Is Science? | |

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Scientific Method | |

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Identify Problem | |

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Formulate Hypothesis | |

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Conduct Pilot Study | |

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Collect Data | |

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Participant (Subject) Sampling | |

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Experimental and Control Groups | |

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Independent and Dependent Variables | |

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Describing Collected Data | |

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Test Hypothesis | |

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Generalize Results | |

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Replicate Experiment | |

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Goals, Principles, and Assumptions of Science | |

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Goals of Science | |

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Description | |

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Explanation | |

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Principles of Science | |

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Empirical Verification | |

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Assumptions of Science | |

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Determinism | |

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Limited Causality | |

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Contiguity of Events | |

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Five Basic Approaches to Scientific Research | |

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Correlation Approach | |

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Establishing Validity | |

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Using Multiple Predictors | |

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Establishing Test Reliability | |

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Developing Homogeneous Subgroups | |

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Case History Approach | |

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Solving Personal Problems | |

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Predicting and Subgrouping | |

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Field Study Approach | |

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Experimental Approach | |

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Advantages of Experimental Approach | |

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Disadvantages of Experimental Approach | |

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Purposes of Experimentation | |

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Experimentation Versus Demonstration | |

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Manipulation Versus Selection of Independent Values | |

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Quasi-Experimental Approach | |

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Time Series Design | |

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Nonequivalent Control Group Design | |

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Summary | |

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Keyword Definitions | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercise Answers | |

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References | |

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Methods of Describing Data | |

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Keywords | |

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Samples and Populations | |

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Consideration of Numbers in Statistics | |

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Continuous Versus Discrete Data | |

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Four General Scales of Measurement | |

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Scaling Behavioral Dimensions | |

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Graphical Methods of Description | |

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Univariate Frequency Distribution | |

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Determine Range | |

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Determine Number and Size | |

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Set Up Frequency Distribution | |

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Tally Scores | |

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Post Tallies | |

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Add f Column | |

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Graphing Results | |

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Frequency Polygon | |

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Histogram | |

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Other Types of Graphs | |

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Cumulative Frequency Distribution | |

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Univariate Descriptive Statistics | |

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Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Mode | |

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Median | |

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Mean | |

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Averaging Means | |

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When to Use Different Measures of Central Tendency | |

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Centiles and Quartiles | |

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Measures of Dispersion, Variability, or Spread | |

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Range | |

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Semi-Interquartile Range | |

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Average Deviation | |

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Variance | |

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Standard Deviation | |

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Interpretation of Standard Deviation | |

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Standard Score | |

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Measures of Distribution Skewness | |

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Measures of Distribution Kurtosis | |

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Summary | |

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Keyword Definitions | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercise Answers | |

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References | |

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Bivariate Descriptive Statistics | |

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Keywords | |

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Bivariate Frequency Distributions | |

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Graphing Relationship Between Two Variables | |

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Shapes of Bivariate Frequency Distributions | |

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Correlation: The Pearson r | |

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Nature of Correlation Coefficients | |

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Pearson Product-Moment Correlation (r) | |

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Computation of Pearson r | |

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Effect of Range on Value or Coefficient | |

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Interpretation of Correlation Coefficients | |

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Interpretation of r<sub>2</sub> (Coefficient of Determination) | |

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Other Correlation Coefficients | |

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Point Biserial r<sub>pb</sub> | |

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Computation of Point Biserial | |

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Assumptions Underlying Point Biserial | |

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Biserial r | |

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Computation of Biserial r<sub>b</sub> | |

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Assumptions Underlying Biserial r | |

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Interpretation of Biserial r | |

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Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (Rho) | |

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Calculation of Spearman Rho | |

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Assumption Underlying Spearman Rho | |

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Use of Spearman Rho | |

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Kendall's Coefficient of Concordance (W) | |

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Computation of W | |

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Phi Coefficient (ï¿½) | |

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Computation of Phi | |

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Assumptions Underlying Phi | |

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Special Uses of Phi Coefficient | |

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Correlation Ratio (Eta) | |

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Calculation of Correlation Ratio | |

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Prediction and Concept of Regression | |

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Concept of Regression | |

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Computation of Regression Lines | |

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Equation for Straight Line | |

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Computation of Linear Regression Line | |

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Relation of b<sub>yx</sub> and b<sub>xy</sub> to r | |

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Standard Error of Estimate | |

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Computation of SE<sub>est</sub> | |

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Interpretation of SE<sub>est</sub> | |

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Summary | |

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Keyword Definitions | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercise Answers | |

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References | |

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Simple Experimental Designs | |

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Keywords | |

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Introduction to Inferential Statistics | |

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Sampling Distribution of Means | |

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Example | |

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Central Limit Theorem | |

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Relationship of Sample Size to ï¿½<sub>X</sub> | |

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Computing Standard Error of Mean ï¿½<sub>X</sub> | |

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Sampling Distribution of Difference Between Two Means ï¿½<sub>D</sub><sub>X</sub> | |

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Example | |

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Computing ï¿½<sub>D</sub><sub>X</sub> | |

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Statistical Hypothesis Testing | |

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Example | |

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One-Tailed Versus Two-Tailed Hypotheses | |

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Type I and Type II Errors | |

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Power of Statistical Testing | |

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Two Randomized Groups Designs: t-Test for Independent Samples | |

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Two Randomized Groups (Between Groups) Design | |

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t-Test for Independent Data | |

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Concept of Degrees of Freedom | |

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Use of f-Test in Statistical Hypothesis Testing | |

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Limitations of Randomized Groups Design | |

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Two Matched Groups and Repeated Measures Designs: t-Test for Correlated Data | |

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Two Matched Groups Design | |

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t-Test for Correlated Data | |

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Computation of f for Correlated Data | |

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Repeated Measures (Within Subjects) Design | |

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Advantages and Uses of Repeated Measures Designs | |

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Disadvantages of Repeated Measures Designs | |

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Counterbalancing in Repeated Measures Designs | |

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Using t-Test With Repeated Measures Design | |

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Nonparametric Analysis | |

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Mann-Whitney U-Test | |

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Assumptions of Mann-Whitney U-Test | |

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Computation of Mann-Whitney U-Test | |

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Explanation of U-Test | |

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Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed-Ranks Test (T) | |

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Assumptions of Wilcoxon Test | |

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Computation of Wilcoxon Test | |

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Explanation of Wilcoxon Test | |

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Chi-Square | |

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Chi-Square Distribution | |

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Chi-Square Tests of Independence | |

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Computation of Degrees of Freedom for Chi-Square Tests | |

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Chi-Square Tests of Goodness of Fit | |

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Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit to Normal | |

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Computation of Chi-Square With Small Expected Frequencies | |

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Testing for Significance of Correlation | |

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Test for Significance of Phi (ï¿½) | |

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Testing for Significance of Pearson r and Spearman Rho | |

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Summary | |

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Keyword Definitions | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercise Answers | |

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References | |

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Simple Analysis of Variance | |

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Keywords | |

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More Than Two Treatments Designs | |

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Reasons for Using More Than Two Treatments | |

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Using More Than Two Treatments May Yield a Different Answer | |

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To Obtain Fairly Precise Knowledge of the IV-DM Relationship | |

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To Study More Than Two Treatment Conditions | |

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Types of More Than Two Treatment Designs | |

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Single-Factor (Simple) Analysis of Variance | |

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Concept of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) | |

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F-Test | |

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Rationale for F-Test | |

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Assumptions of F-Test | |

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Why Multiple t-Tests Should Not Be Used | |

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ANOVA for More Than Two Randomized Groups Design | |

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Computation of Sums of Squares | |

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Degrees of Freedom, Mean Squares, and F-Ratio | |

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Generalized ANOVA Summary Table | |

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Computational Example | |

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ANOVA for Repeated Measures Design | |

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Computation of Sums of Squares | |

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Degrees of Freedom, Mean Squares, and F-Ratio | |

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Generalized ANOVA Summary Table | |

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Computation Example | |

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Post Hoc Analyses: Multiple Comparisons Among Means | |

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Tukey's WSD (Wholly Significant Difference) | |

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Neuman-Keuls Test | |

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Bonferroni t-Test | |

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Scheffe Test for All Possible Comparisons | |

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Summary | |

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Keyword Definitions | |

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Exercises | |

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Exercise Answers | |

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References | |

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Multifactor Analysis of Variance | |

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Keywords | |

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Rationale for Factorial Designs | |

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Factorial Designs | |

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Two-Factor Designs | |

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Three-Factor Designs | |

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Four-Factor Designs | |

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Nested Designs | |

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Fully Crossed Designs | |

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Nested Designs | |

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Limitation of Nested Designs | |

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Types of Analysis of Variance Designs | |

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Between-Groups Designs | |

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Completely Within-Subjects (Repeated Measures) Designs | |