Cross-Cultural Analysis The Science and Art of Comparing the World's Modern Societies and Their Cultures

ISBN-10: 141299229X
ISBN-13: 9781412992299
Edition: 2013
Authors: Michael Minkov
List price: $91.00
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Description: Cross-Cultural Analysis is the sequel to CultureÆs Consequences, the classic work published by one of the most influential management thinkers in todayÆs times, Geert Hofstede. HofstedeÆs original work introduced a new research paradigm in  More...

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Book details

List price: $91.00
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 6/6/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 504
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.090
Language: English

Cross-Cultural Analysis is the sequel to CultureÆs Consequences, the classic work published by one of the most influential management thinkers in todayÆs times, Geert Hofstede. HofstedeÆs original work introduced a new research paradigm in cross-cultural analysis: studying cultural differences through nation-level dimensions (imaginary variables defined by intercorrelated items). This paradigm has been subsequently used by hundreds of prominent scholars all over the world and has produced solid results. This new text takes the next step: It critically examines in one comprehensive volume all current, prevalent methods that have been developed since HofstedeÆs work, offering students and researchers the theoretical and practical advantages and potential pitfalls of each approach.The book is structured into two distinct parts. Part I focuses on the main theoretical and statistical issues in cross-cultural analysis using HofstedeÆs method and the different research methods now associated with it. Part II will consist of presentations of all well-known (and some less known) large-scale cross-cultural studies, since Hofstede's, that have explained cross-cultural variation in terms of dimensional models. The presentations will explain how these models have contributed to our practical understanding of cross-cultural diversity. Key features of the work include:Coverage of all large-scale cross-cultural studies, including ones led by Hofstede; Schwartz; Bond; Noorderhaven; Smith, Dugan, &BAD:amp; Trompenaars; Levine; Kuppens; Schimmack; Schmidt; Project GLOBE; TIMSS; Lynn and Vanhanen; McCrae; Smith; Inglehart; Minkov The first comprehensive and statistically significant analysis of the predictive powers of each cross-cultural model, based on nation-level variables from a range of large-scale database sources such as the World Values Survey, the Pew Research Center, the World Bank, the World Health Organization, the UN Statistics Division, UNDP, the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, TIMSS, OECD PISATables with scores for all culture-level dimensions in all major cross-cultural analyses (involving 20 countries or more) that have been published so far in academic journals or booksThe book will be an invaluable resource to masters and PhD students taking advanced courses in cross-cultural research and analysis in Management, Psychology, Sociology, Anthropology, and related programs. It will also be a must-have reference for academics studying cross-cultural dimensions and differences across the social and behavioral sciences.

Foreword
Introduction
Understanding "Culture"
The Concept of Culture
The "Unpackaging" of Culture
Meaning of the Word Culture and Definitions of the Concept
Culture As Is Versus Culture As It Would Be
Classifications of the Concepts of Culture
Subjective Culture: Mental Software
Objective Culture: Institutions and Artifacts
Culture as a System of Behaviors
Culture as a Set of Meanings
Culture as an Independently Existing Phenomenon
Culture as a Subjective Human Construct
Conclusions About the Conceptualization of Culture
Main Characteristics of Culture
Sharedness
Normalcy
Integration, Functionality, Rationality, and Logic
Stability and Changeability
Transmittability
Complexity
National Culture
National Culture Versus Organizational Culture
National Culture Versus Religious Denomination Culture
Diffuseness
Uncontrollability
Predictability
The Elements of Culture
Particular Elements of Culture
Universal Elements of Culture
Self-Reports
Values
Norms and Ideologies
Values for Children
Beliefs
Behavioral Intentions
Self-Reported Behaviors
Attitudes
Self-Descriptions
Reports of Impressions of Others
Peer Reports
Idealistic Reports
Stereotypes
Mental Skills and Knowledge
General Intelligence and Related Domains
Perception Characteristics
Cognitive Patterns
Observable Behaviors
Direct Observation of Behaviors
National Statistics
Statistical Products
What Else Can Be Studied by Cross-Cultural Analysts?
Studying Culture
Types of Cross-Cultural Studies: Merits and Pitfalls
Studies of Culture Versus Studies of Something Else
Qualitative Versus Quantitative Studies
Idiographic Versus Nomothetic Studies
Insiders' Versus Outsiders' Studies
Studies Comparing Variables Versus Studies Comparing Cases
Structure-Oriented Versus Level-Oriented Studies
Synchronic Versus Diachronic (or Longitudinal) Studies
Deductive Versus Inductive Studies
Paper-and-Pencil Versus Observational Studies
Studies Using Primary Data Versus Studies Using Secondary Data
Studies Across Individuals First Versus Studies Directly Across Societies
Theoretical Versus Empirical Perspectives
Theory Before Empiricism
Empiricism Before Theory
The Goal of Culturology and the Other Social Sciences: Theory or Empiricism?
Defining Constructs Empirically
A Note on Operationalism as a Method of Defining Constructs in Culturology or Other Domains
A Search for Truth Versus a Search for What Works
Cross-Cultural Comparability
Etic Versus Emic Approaches
Incomparable Phenomena
Criteria for the Cross-Cultural Transferability of Etic Individual-Level Constructs and the Instruments for Their Measurement
Criteria for the Applicability of Etic Approaches to Studies at the Societal Level
Are Etic Tests Preferable to Emic Ones?
Paper-and-Pencil Studies
Selecting Samples of Respondents: Nationally Representative Samples Versus Matched Samples
Types of Items in Noncognitive Paper-and-Pencil Studies
Likert Scales
Free-Choice Items
Forced-Choice Items
Issues Associated With Likert Scales
The Reference Group Effect
Potential Meanings of Some Positions on a Likert Scale in Cross-Cultural Analysis
Extracting Societal Information From Items on a Likert Scale
Response Style
Detection of Response Style
Treatment of Response Style: Undesirable Bias or Normal Style?
Causes of Response Style: The Number of Points on a Likert Scale
Causes of Response Style: The Language of the Questionnaire
Causes of Response Style: The Role of Culture
Causes of Response Style: The Nature of the Items
Causes of Response Style: The Role of Intelligence and Education
Conclusions About the Causes of Response Style
Dealing With Response Style Before the Study: Choice of Items and Scales
Dealing With Response Style After the Study: Standardization of Scores
Issues Associated With Forced-Choice Items
Issues Associated With Free-Choice Items
Other Issues That Can Affect Data for Cross-Cultural Research
Poverty
Distance From the Researcher
Social Desirability
Taboos
Intelligibility Problems
Semantic Differences
Political Factors
Test-Retest Reliability of Paper-and-Pencil Studies at the National Level and Other Statistics
Face Validity
Common Method Variance and Validation
Data Analysis
Sample Issues
Selection of an Appropriate Sample of Societies
Galton's Problem
Missing Data Bias
Dimensions of Culture
The Utility of the Dimension Paradigm in Cross-Cultural Research
The Nature of Cultural and Other Dimensions
Why Dimensions Are Subjective Human Constructs
Subjective Selection of Samples for the Construction of Dimensions
Subjective Selection of Items for the Construction of Dimensions
Subjective Selection of the Number of Dimensions
Subjective Selection of the Nature of the Dimensions
Individual and Ecological Dimensions: Different Levels and Units of Analysis
Polarity
Different Versions of the Same Ecological Dimension?
Dimensions and Polythetic Classes
Data Reduction
Agreement and Aggregation
Correlations and Scales
Scale Reliability
Multidimensional Scaling
Plotting Variables on an MDS Map
Identifying Cultural Dimensions on an MDS Map
Plotting Cases on an MDS Map and Calculating Case Coordinates
Using MDS for Identifying Typologies
Issues Related to Multidimensional Scaling as a Data Reduction Technique
Factor Analysis
Calculation of Factor Scores
Issues Related to Factor Analysis as a Data Reduction Method
Factor Analysis as a Scale Reliability Test
How Do We Know That We Have Constructed Appropriate Dimensions?
Constructing Individual and Ecological Dimensions
Clustering
Looking for Cause-and-Effect Relationships
The Consilience Approach
Contextual Consilience
Methodological Consilience
Predictive Consilience
Exclusive Consilience
The Issue of Time Sequence
Looking for Noncultural Variables That May Be Determinants of Culture
Multiple Regression Analysis
Divergent Results From Different Types of MRA
The Excluded Variables
Issues Related to Samples
Issues Related to the Independent Variables
An Example of an MRA
Major Cross-Cultural Studies
Cultural Dimensions Across Modern Nations
Geert Hofstede (1980, 2001): A Study of Values, Beliefs, and Norms Across the IBM Corporation
Chinese Culture Connection (1987): A Study of National Values Based on a Chinese Questionnaire
Shalom Schwartz (1994): A Study of the Values of Schoolteachers and University Students
Peter Smith, Fons Trompenaars, and Shaun Dugan (1995): A Study of Locus of Control
Peter Smith, Shaun Dugan, and Fons Trompenaars (1996): A Study of the Values and Beliefs of Organizational Employees
Robert Levine and Ara Norenzayan (1999): A Study of the Pace of Life
Robert Levine, Ara Norenzayan, and Karen Philbrick (2001): A Study of Helping Strangers
Ashleigh Merritt (2000): An Attempt to Replicate Hofstede's Four Dimensions
Ronald Inglehart and Wayne Baker (2000): An Analysis of the World Values Survey
Ulrich Schimmack, Shigeiro Oishi, and Ed Diener (2002): A Study of Personal Emotional Dialecticism and Frequencies of Pleasant and Unpleasant Emotions
Peter Smith, Mark Peterson, and Shalom Schwartz (2002): A Study of Managers' Sources of Guidance
Evert van de Vliert and Onne Janssen (2002): A Study of Performance Motives
Robert McCrae (2002): A Comparison of Mean National and Ethnic Personality Traits (Self-Reports)
Robert McCrae and Antonio Terracciano (2005): A Study of Mean National or Ethnic Personality Traits (Peer Reports)
David Schmitt, Juri Allik, Robert McCrae, and Veronica Benet-Martinez (2007): A Study of the Geographic Distribution of the Big Five Personality Traits (Self-Reports)
Michael Bond, Kwok Leung, and Associates (2004): A Study of Social Axioms
Project GLOBE (2004): A Study of National Stereotypes and Ideologies
Project GLOBE (2004): A Study of Culturally Endorsed Leadership Profiles
Eva Green, Jean-Claude Deschamps, and Dario Paez (2005): A Study of Beliefs and Values
David Schmitt (2005): A Study of Sociosexuality
Peter Kuppens, Eva Ceulemans, Marieke Timmerman, Ed Diener, and Chu Kim-Prieto (2006): A Study of Positive and Negative Emotions
Christian Welzel (2010): An Analysis of the World Values Survey
Michael Minkov (2009a): A Study of Social Polarization in Social Opinions and Life-Quality Judgments
Michael Minkov (2011): A Study of Values Related to National Economic Growth and Educational Achievement
Michael Minkov (2011): A Study of National Homicide Rates and Their Correlates
Michael Minkov and Geert Hofstede (2012a): An Analysis of the World Values Survey Replicating Two Dimensions of the Chinese Values Survey
Geert Hofstede, Bram Neuijen, Denise Daval Ohayv, and Geert Sanders (1990): A Study of Organizational Cultures Across 20 Danish and Dutch Organization Units
A Summary of the Observed Cultural Differences Across the Globe
Cultural Differences Between Rich and Developing Countries
Cultural Differences Across Rich Countries
Cultural Differences Between Eastern Europe and Latin America
Cultural Differences Between East Asia and the Arab World
Cultural Differences Between the Arab World and Sub-Saharan Africa
Appendix
References
Index
About the Author

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