Research Methods for the Behavioral Sciences

ISBN-10: 1412975115
ISBN-13: 9781412975117
Edition: 2014
List price: $131.00 Buy it from $16.06
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Book details

List price: $131.00
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/6/2013
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 624
Size: 8.50" wide x 10.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.080

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Gregory J. Privitera is an Associate Professor of Psychology at St. Bonaventure University. He received his Ph.D. in Behavioral Neuroscience at the University at Buffalo and went on to complete post-doctoral research at Arizona State University before coming to St. Bonaventure. A veteran of the U.S. Marines, he is also the author of more than two dozen peer-reviewed articles and books on the role of social cognition and learning on eating behavior and health. His work has been recognized in a variety of ways, including university awards for teaching and research. He oversees a variety of undergraduate research projects at St. Bonaventure University with more than a dozen undergraduate student research projects leading to publication in peer-reviewed journals. In the community, Dr. Privitera is a member of the Board of Trustees for a local elementary and high school where his children attend the elementary school.

About the Author
Acknowledgments
Preface
To the Student: How to Use SPSS With This Book
Overview of SPSS: What Are You Looking At?
Preview of SPSS in Focus
Scientific Inquiry
Introduction to Scientific Thinking
Science as a Method of Knowing
The Scientific Method
Other Methods of Knowing
The Goals of Science
Approaches in Acquiring Knowledge
Generating Testable Ideas
Generating Interesting and Novel Ideas
Converting Ideas to Hypotheses and Theories
Developing Your Idea: Deduction and Induction
Performing a Literature Review
Ethics in Focus: Giving Proper Credit
The "3 Cs" of an Effective Literature Review
Testing Your Idea: Confirmation and Disconfirmation
Ethics in Focus: Publication Bias
Research Ethics
Ethics in Behavioral Research
The Need for Ethics Committees in Research: A Historical Synopsis
Ethics in Focus: Examples From Psychology
Human Participant Research: IRBs and the APA Code of Conduct
Ethics in Focus: Anonymity and Confidentiality
Animal Subject Research: IACUCs and the APA Code of Conduct
Additional Ethical Considerations: Scientific Integrity
Defining and Measuring Variables, Selecting Samples, and Choosing an Appropriate Research Design
Identifying Scientific Variables
Criteria for Defining and Measuring Variables
Constructs and Operational Definitions
Types of Variables
Scales of Measurement
Reliability of a Measurement
Validity of a Measurement
Selecting a Measurement Procedure
Ethics in Focus: Replication as a Gauge for Fraud?
SPSS in Focus: Entering and Coding Data
Sampling From Populations
Why Do Researchers Select Samples?
Subjects, Participants, and Sampling Methods
Methods of Sampling: Nonprobability Sampling
Methods of Sampling: Probability Sampling
Sampling Error and Standard Error of the Mean
SPSS in Focus: Estimating the Standard Error of the Mean
Potential Biases in Sampling
Ethics in Focus: Subject Pools
SPSS in Focus: Identifying New Populations Using the One-Sample t Test
Choosing a Research Design
Designing a Study to Answer a Question
Categories of Research Design
Internal and External Validity
Demonstrating Cause in an Experiment
Ethics in Focus: Beneficence and Random Assignment
Threats to the Internal Validity of a Research Study
Threats to the External Validity of a Research Study
External Validity, Experimentation, and Realism
A Final Thought on Validity and Choosing a Research Design
Nonexperimental Research Designs
Naturalistic, Qualitative, and Existing Data Research Designs
Naturalistic Observation
An Overview of Naturalistic Observation
The Research Setting: Natural and Contrived Settings
Techniques for Conducting Naturalistic Observation
Ethics in Focus: Influencing Participant Behavior
Qualitative Designs
An Overview of Qualitative Designs
Qualitative Research Designs
Ethics in Focus: Anonymity in Qualitative Research
Existing Data Designs
An Overview of Existing Data Designs
Existing Data Designs
Ethics in Focus: Existing Data and Experimenter Bias
Survey and Correlational Research Designs
Survey Designs
An Overview of Survey Designs
Types of Survey Items
Rules for Writing Survey Items
Administering Surveys
Surveys, Sampling, and Nonresponse Bias
Ethics in Focus: Handling and Administering Surveys
Correlational Designs
The Structure of Correlational Designs
Describing the Relationship Between Variables
Limitations in Interpretation
Correlation, Regression, and Prediction
SPSS in Focus: Correlation and Linear Regression
Quasi-Experimental and Experimental Research Designs
Quasi-Experimental and Single-Case Experimental Designs
Quasi-Experimental Designs
An Overview of Quasi-Experimental Designs
Quasi-Experimental Design: One-Group Designs
Quasi-Experimental Design: Nonequivalent Control Group Designs
Quasi-Experimental Design: Time Series Designs
Quasi-Experimental Design: Developmental Designs
Ethics in Focus: Development and Aging
Single-Case Experimental Designs
An Overview of Single-Case Designs
Single-Case Baseline-Phase Designs
Validity, Stability, Magnitude, and Generality
Ethics in Focus: The Ethics of Innovation
Between-Subjects Experimental Designs
Conducting Experiments: Between-Subjects Design
Experimental Versus Control Group
Manipulation and the Independent Variable
Variability and the Independent Variable
Ethics in Focus: The Accountability of Manipulation
Comparing Two Independent Samples
SPSS in Focus: Two-Independent-Sample t Test
Comparing Two or More Independent Samples
SPSS in Focus: One-Way Between-Subjects ANOVA
Measuring the Dependent Variable
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Between-Subjects Design
Within-Subjects Experimental Designs
Conducting Experiments: Within-Subjects Design
Controlling Time-Related Factors
Ethics in Focus: Minimizing Participant Fatigue
Individual Differences and Variability
Comparing Two Related Samples
SPSS in Focus: Related-Samples t Test
Comparing Two or More Related Samples
SPSS in Focus: One-Way Within-Subjects ANOVA
An Alternative to Pre-Post Designs: Solomon Four-Group Design
Comparing Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs
Factorial Experimental Designs
Testing Multiple Factors in the Same Experiment
Selecting Samples for a Factorial Design in Experimentation
Types of Factorial Designs
Ethics in Focus: Participant Fatigue and Factorial Designs
Main Effects and Interactions
Identifying Main Effects and Interactions in a Graph
Including Quasi-Independent Factors in an Experiment
Reasons for Including Two or More Factors in an Experiment
Higher-Order Factorial Designs
SPSS in Focus: General Instructions for Conducting a Factorial ANOVA
Analyzing, Interpreting, and Communicating Research Data
Analysis and Interpretation: Exposition of Data
Descriptive Statistics: Why Summarize Data?
Frequency Distributions: Tables and Graphs
Measures of Central Tendency
Measures of Variability
SPSS in Focus: Central Tendency and Variability
Graphing Means and Correlations j
Using Correlation to Describe Reliability
SPSS in Focus: Cronbach's Alpha and Cohen's Kappa
Ethics in Focus: Deception Due to the Distortion of Data
Analysis and Interpretation: Making Decisions About Data
Inferential Statistics: What Are We Making Inferences About?
Types of Error and Power
Parametric Tests: Applying the Decision Tree
Nonparametric Tests: Applying the Decision Tree
SPSS in Focus: The Chi-Square Tests
Effect Size: How Big Is an Effect in the Population?
Estimation: What Are the Possible Values of a Parameter?
Confidence Intervals, Significance, and Effect Size
Issues for Interpretation: Precision and Certainty
Ethics in Focus: Full Disclosure of Data
Communicating Research: Preparing Manuscripts, Posters, and Talks
Elements of Communication
Writing a Manuscript: Writing Style and Language
Elements of an APA-Style Manuscript
Literature Reviews
Reporting Observations in Qualitative Research
Ethics in Focus: Credit and Authorship
Presenting a Poster
Giving a Professional Talk
APA-Style Notes, Sample Manuscript, and Posters
Essentials for Writing APA-Style Research Papers
Sample APA-Style Manuscript
Poster Template and Sample Posters
Instructions for Randomizing and Statistical Tables
Random Numbers Table
Constructing a Latin Square
Statistical Tables
References
Glossary
Index

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