Media Audiences Effects, Users, Institutions, and Power

ISBN-10: 1412970423
ISBN-13: 9781412970426
Edition: 2013
Authors: John L. Sullivan
List price: $81.00 Buy it from $15.34
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Description: Despite the widespread use of the term audience in our popular culture, the meaning of the audience is complex, and it has undergone significant historical shifts over time. Media Audiences explores the concept of media audiences from four broad  More...

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Book details

List price: $81.00
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/23/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 280
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.034
Language: English

Despite the widespread use of the term audience in our popular culture, the meaning of the audience is complex, and it has undergone significant historical shifts over time. Media Audiences explores the concept of media audiences from four broad perspectives, as victims of mass media, as market constructions & commodities, as users of media, and as producers & subcultures of mass media.

Preface
Acknowlegments
History and Concept of the Audience
Situating the Audience Concept
Overview of the Chapter
What Is an "Audience"?
Constructionism and the Notion of the Audience
Three Models of the Audience
History of Early Audiences
Greek and Roman Audiences: Public Performance and Oral Communication
Print and the Shift Toward Mediated Audiences
Liberalism, Democratic Participation, and Crowds in the 19th Century
Motion Pictures and the Rise of the Mass Audience
Audiences and Notions of Power
Structure and Agency
What Is Power?
Conclusion: Constructing Audiences Through History and Theory
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Audiences as Objects
Effects of Media Messages
Overview of the Chapter
Origins of Media Effects Theories in the Early 20th Century
Charles Horton Cooley and the Emergence of Sociology
Concern Over Film Audiences: Hugo M�nsterberg and Mass Suggestibility
Mass Society Theory and the Payne Fund Studies
The Payne Fund Studies (1929-1932)
Consequences of the Payne Fund Studies
The War of the Worlds Broadcast and the Direct Effects Model
The War of the Worlds Broadcast (1938)
Cantril's Study of Mass Panic among Radio Audiences
Mass Propaganda Concerns and World War II Communication Research
Early Concerns With Mass Persuasion
World War II Communication Research
Postwar Communication Research: The Rise of the Limited Effects Paradigm
Persuasion Research: Selectivity and the ELM
The People's Choice (1944) and Personal Influence (1955)
Effects of Media Violence
Rise of Public Concern Over Television and the Surgeon General's Report (1971)
Long-Term Media Effects and Cultivation Theory
Video Game Violence and Effects
Conclusion: Enduring Concern Over Media Effects
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Audiences as Institutional Constructions
Public Opinion and Audience Citizenship
Overview of the Chapter 1
A Brief History of Public Opinion
Greco-Roman Notions of Public Opinion
Feudal Europe and the Representative Public Sphere
The 18th-century Enlightenment and the Bourgeois Public Sphere
Quantification of Public Opinion in the 19th Century
The Rise of Surveys in the 20th Century
Survey Methods and the Public Opinion Industry
Sampling and Survey Participation
Data Gathering and Survey Design
Public Opinion Organizations
Public Opinion and the Limits of Audience Constructions
Public Opinion as a Fictional Construct
Surveys and the Manufacture of Public Opinion
How News Shapes Public Opinion
News and the Public Agenda
Opinion Polling and the News Media
Conclusion: The Construction of Public Opinion and Its Implications for Democracy
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Media Ratings and Target Marketing
Overview of the Chapter
The Political Economic Approach to Communication
Political Economy and the Commodity Audience
Dallas W. Smythe and the "Blindspot" Debate
Ratings and the Construction of the Audience Product
Toothpicks and Trees: The "Natural" Audience as Taxonomic Collectives
Measuring Audiences: The Ratings System
Audience Research and the Ratings
Operationalization of the Audience Concept: Quantification
Constructing the Nielsen Sample
Measuring Audience Viewership: Diaries, Household Meters, Peoplemeters, and PPMs
Online Audience Measures
Ratings and Shares in the Television Industry
Ratings, Market Research, and the Audience Commodity: Assigning Market Value to Mass Audiences
The Importance of Audience Demographics: Age, Gender, and Income
The Role of Psychographic and Lifestyle Measurements in Targeted Marketing Appeals
Marketing and Social Stereotypes: Minority Audiences Struggle With Big Media
Conclusion: How Effective Is Institutional Control Over Audiences?
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Audiences as Active Users of Media
Uses and Gratifications
Overview of the Chapter
Early Examples of Uses and Gratifications in Communication Research
Motion Picture Autobiographies and Media Motivations in the 1920s
Female Radio Serial Listeners in the 1940s
The Uses and Gratifications Approach
Israeli Media and Their Uses (Katz, Gurevitch, and Haas, 1973)
Uses and Gratifications and the Notion of Needs
Audience Activities and Media Motives
Expectancy-Value Approaches to Uses and Gratifications
Social Uses of Media
The Uses and Dependency Approach
Conclusion: Refocusing on Audience Power
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Interpreting and Decoding Mass Media Texts
Overview of the Chapter
The Rise of Critical Cultural Studies
Interpretation and Semiotics
Ideology, Screen Theory, and the Critical Paradigm
The Birmingham School and the Encoding/Decoding Model
The Encoding/Decoding Model
Message Asymmetry and Multiple Levels of Meaning
Polysemy and Three Subject Positions
The Nationwide Audience Studies
Gender and Media Interpretation: Soap Operas, Romances, and Feminism
Crossroads and the Soap Opera Viewer
Decoding Dallas: The Work of Ien Ang
Reading the Romance Novel Reader: Janice Radway
Cross-Cultural Reception of Popular Media
Israeli Viewers of Dallas
Decoding American Soap TV in India
Open Texts and Popular Meanings
Open Texts: The Theories of John Fiske
Intertextuality and Interpretive Communities
Conclusion: Interpretation and Audience Power '
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Reception Contexts and Media Rituals
Overview of the Chapter
Media in Context: Notions of Space and Time
Social and Situational Contexts
Time and Media Use
Media Reception in the Domestic Sphere
Housewives and Mass Media
Morley's Nationwide Follow-Up: Family Television
Television and "Gendered" Technologies in the Home
Domestic Media Reception in the '90s and Beyond
Social Versus Individualized Viewing Behaviors
The Internet and New Media in the Home
Media and Everyday Life in the Domestic Context
The Blending of Public and Private Spaces: Modernity and Time-Space Distanciation
Media Technology and the Home
Media Spaces in the 21st Century
Media Rituals: Another Reception Context
Defining Rituals
Media Events: Creating Television's "High Holidays"
Conclusion: Audiences in Context
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Audiences as Producers and Subcultures
Media Fandom and Audience Subcultures
Overview of the Chapter
Defining Fan Cultures
Fan Stereotypes
Defining Fan Studies: Why Study Fans?
Fan Cultures and Interpretive Activity
The Social Aspect of Media Fandom: Developing Communities and Subcultures
Fan Activism: Challenging Institutional Producers
Fans and Media Texts: Protecting Continuity and Canon
Canon Wars: Star Wars Fans Define the Popular Text
Fans and Textual Productions
De Certeau and Textual Poaching
Fanzines, Fanfic, and Filking: Textual Poaching in Action
Fans and Cultural Hierarchy: The Limits of Textual Reinterpretation
Pierre Bourdieu and the Sociology of Cultural Consumption
Second Wave Fan Studies: The Reproduction of Economic and Social Hierarchies
Conclusion: Fans, Creativity, and Cultural Hierarchy
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Online, Interactive Audiences in a Digital Media World
Overview of the Chapter
Digitalization, Fragmentation, and the Rise of Audience Autonomy
YouTube and WoW: Sites of Audience Agency and Creativity
The Rise of Participatory Culture
YouTube as a Site for Participatory Culture
World of Warcraft as Creative Playground and Social Center
Crowdsourcing Media Production: Wikis and Blogs
Wikis and the Crowdsourcing of Audience Knowledge
Blogs and Citizen Journalism
Questioning Audience Power in the Networked Information Society: Issues of Media Ownership, Surveillance, and Labor Exploitation
Audience-Produced Media: The Question of Intellectual Property
Social Media and Audience Surveillance in a Networked Environment
Audience Creativity and Labor Exploitation
Conclusion: Networked Creativity Meets Undercompensated Labor
Discussion Activities
Additional Materials
References
Conclusion: Audience Agency in New Contexts
Overview of the Chapter
The Rise of Mobile, Transmedia Experiences in the Post-Network Era
The New Economics of Audience Aggregation
Audience Studies in a New Century
Additional Materials
References
Index
About the Author

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