Nursing Knowledge Science, Practice, and Philosophy

ISBN-10: 1405184345
ISBN-13: 9781405184342
Edition: 5th 2010
Authors: Mark W. Risjord
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Description: Nurses who conduct research have a longstanding interest in questions of nursing knowledge. Nursing Knowledge is a clear and well-informed exposition of the philosophical background to nursing theory and research. Nursing Knowledge answers such  More...

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Book details

List price: $36.50
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2010
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 11/20/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 264
Size: 7.00" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.210
Language: English

Nurses who conduct research have a longstanding interest in questions of nursing knowledge. Nursing Knowledge is a clear and well-informed exposition of the philosophical background to nursing theory and research. Nursing Knowledge answers such fundamental questions as: How is nursing theory related to nursing practice? What are the core elements of nursing knowledge? What makes nursing research distinctive as nursing research? It examines the history of the philosophical debates within nursing, critiques the arguments, explains the implications and sets out to rethink the philosophical foundation of nursing science. Nursing Knowledge begins with philosophical problems that arise within nursing science. It then considers various solutions with the help of philosophical ideas arguingargues that nurses ought to adopt certain philosophical positions because they are the best solutions to the problems that nurses encounter. The book argues claims that the nursing standpoint has the potential to disclose a more complete understanding of human health than the common disease-and-dysfunction views. Because of the relationship to practice, nursing science may freely draw theory from other disciplines and nursing practice unifies nursing research. By redefining theory and philosophy,With a new philosophical perspective on nursing science, the so-called relevance gap between nursing theory and practice can be closed. The final chapter of the book 'redraws the map', to create a new picture of nursing science based on the following principles: Problems of practice should guide nursing research Practice and theory are dynamically related Theory research must provide the knowledge base necessary for nurse interventions, training, patient education, etc. Nursing research should develop midrange theories and its results are nursing theory is strengthened when it uses theories confirmed by is integrated with other disciplinesKey features Clear and accessibly written Accurate and philosophically well-informed, Discusses philosophical problems in contexts familiar to nurses Systematically examines the philosophical issues involved in nursing research Examines epistemology (how we know what we know), theory development, and the philosophical foundations of scientific methodology. Develops a new model of nursing knowledgeDr. Mark Risjord is Associate Professor in Philosophy at Emory University, and has a faculty appointment in the Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing. His main research areas have been in the philosophy of social science and the philosophy of medicine. He was invited to has been teaching philosophy of science and theory development in the new PhD program in the Nell Hodgson School of Nursing at Emory University insince 1999. He has been awarded two competitive teaching prizes: Emory Williams Distinguished Teaching Award (2004) and the Excellence in Teaching Award (1997). He is presently serving as the Masse-Martin/NEH Distinguished Teaching Chair (2006-2010).

Preface
Foreword
Nursing Knowledge And The
Challenge Of Relevance
Introduction to Part I
Nursing knowledge
Two kinds of theorypractice gap
Philosophy of nursing science
Prehistory of the problem
The domain of nursing
Professionalization and the translation gap
Nursing education reform in the United States
Nursing research begins
A philosophy of nursing
What would a nursing science look like?
Nursing theory and nursing knowledge
Borrowed theory
Uniqueness
Conclusion: the relevance gap appears
Opening the relevance gap
Two conceptions of nursing science
The demise of practice theory
The argument from value freedom
The argument from theory structure
The consensus emerges
Carpe's patterns of knowledge
Donaldson and Crowley on the discipline
Fawcett on the levels of theory
The relevance gap
The qualitative research movement
The middle-range theory movement
Conclusion: the relevance gap endures
Toward a philosophy of nursing science
Philosophical questions about nursing
Questions about the discipline
Questions of philosophy
Science, value, and the nursing standpoint
Qualitative research and value-freedom
Standpoint epistemology
Theory, science, and nursing knowledge
The received view of theory
Explanatory coherence and inter-level models
Consequences for nursing knowledge
Conclusion: closing the gap
Values And The Nursing Standpoint
Introduction to Part II
Practice values and the disciplinary knowledge base
Dickoff and James
practice theory
Values and theory testing
Challenges to Dickoff and James
criteria
Beckstran's critique
Fact and value
Intrinsic and instrumental values
Carpe's factvalue distinction
Problems with patterns
The disintegration of nursing knowledge
The obfuscation of evaluative commitments
The role of theory in ethical knowledge
Sociopolitical knowing
Conclusion: fact and value in nursing knowledge
Models of value-laden science
The Johnson model: nursing values as guides for theory
Constitutive and contextual values
Constitutive values in science: Kuh's argument
Epistemic and moral/political values
Models of value-laden inquiry
Value-laden concepts in nursing inquiry
Conclusion: constitutive moral and political values in nursing inquiry
Standpoint epistemology and nursing knowledge
Social role and epistemic privilege
Feminist appropriation of standpoint epistemology
Generalizing standpoints
Knowledge and the division of labor in health care
Nursing knowledge and nursing roles
Conclusion: nursing knowledge as an epistemic standpoint
The nursing standpoint
Top-down and bottom-up views of nursing
Values in the nursing standpoint
The philosophical questions revisited
Questions and concerns
What is the nursing role?
How are the boundaries of the profession determined?
Qualitative or quantitative?
Is nursing an applied science?
Conclusion: science and standpoint
Nursing Theory And The Philosophy Of Science
Introduction to Part III
Logical positivism and mid-century philosophy of science
Some history and terminology
Empiricism
Logical positivism
Conceptions of theory in nursing
Theories and axiom systems
Euclid and Newton
Challenges to an axiomatic treatment of theory
Implicit definition
Theory structure: the received view
Theoretical and experimental laws
The hierarchy of theory
Explanation and confirmation
Explanation
Theory testing
Conclusion: logical positivism and scientific knowledge
Echoesinnursing
Did logical positivism influence nursing?
Three kinds of influence
Positivism and the critique of nursing metatheory
The metaparadigm of nursing
Validity of the metaparadigm
What is a metaparadigm;?
Levels of theory 100
How the levels are distinguished
How the levels are related
Why the levels are supposed to be necessary
Borrowed theory
Conclusion: the relevance gap and the philosophy of science
Rejecting the received view
Holistic confirmation
The necessity of auxiliary hypotheses
Auxiliary hypotheses and borrowed theory
Consequences for nursing
Failure of the theoryobservation distinction
The vagueness of the distinction
The role of training
Observation and theory testing
Levels of theory and interdisciplinary research
Theory change and level mixing
Theoretical integration
Consequences for nursing
Conclusion: rejecting the received view of nursing science
The Idea Of A Nursing Science
Introduction to Part IV
Postnursing theory inquiry
Passion for substance
Situation-specific theories
Postnursing theory inquiry
Research example: mastectomy
Background
Patient responses to radical mastectomy
Background
Sensory and distress components of pain
Breakthrough research and situation-specific theory
Conclusion: revisioning nursing theory
The structure of theory
Questions and answers
Coherence and confirmation
Horizontal and vertical questions
Breakthrough research revisited
Radical mastectomy
Pain research
Borrowed theory
Research example: pain intervention
Borrowed theory and the nursing standpoint
Conclusion: piecing the quilt
Models, mechanisms, and middle-range theory
What is middle-range theory?
An old, new definition of middle-range theory
The semantic conception and the received view
Middle-range theories as theoretical models
Physical and nonphysical theoretical models
The challenge of precision in nursing models
Interlevel models in nursing science
Theoretical models and explanatory coherence
Holism, reductionism, and the nursing standpoint
The holistic patient care argument
The inconsistency argument
The causation and control argument
Causality, holism, and professional values
Conclusion: causal models and nursing science
Concepts And Theories
Introduction to Part V
Consequences of contextualism
Concepts: theory-formed or theory-forming?
Public and personal concepts
The priority of theory
Linguistic arguments for contextualism
Scientific and colloquial contexts
Contextualism and realism
Moderate realism
Contextualism and antirealism
Realism and representation
Concept analysis and borrowed theory
Conclusion: philosophical foundations of multifaceted concepts
Theory development and multifaceted concepts
Concepts, borrowed theory, and interlevel models
Conceptual models and the fate of grand theory
Models and theories
The orientation and abstraction pictures
Arguments against the abstraction picture
Harmful effects of the abstraction picture
Advantages of the orientation picture
Rereading the early theorists
Nursing pedagogy and early theory
Conceptualizing the nurses role
Models of nursing and models for nursing
Conceptual models as nursing philosophy
Philosophical criticism of conceptual models
Conclusion: science, practice, and philosophy
Paradigm, Theory, And Method
Introduction to Part VI
Terminological preliminaries
The rise of qualitative research
Making space for qualitative methodology: Carper, Benner, and Watson
The triangulation problem
Triangulation and confirmation
Objections to triangulation
Two paradigms of nursing inquiry
Conclusion: method, theory, and paradigm
What is a paradigm?
Components of a paradigm
Theory and ontology
Theory and method
Values
Incommensurability
Pulling paradigms apart
Theory and method (reprise)
Theory and ontology (reprise)
Against paradigms
Conclusion: nursing science without paradigms
Methodological separatism and reconciliation
Reality and realities
Idealism
Meaning and reality
Static and dynamic
Objective and subjective
Deduction and induction
Reductionism and value-freedom
The unity of nursing knowledge
Reconciling qualitative and quantitative research
Methods as bridges
The objective support
The query support
Method in the middle
Conclusion: local methodological decision-making
Conclusion
Redrawing the map
Theory
Criteria for theory evaluation
A new perspective on theory
Evaluating theoretical models
Evaluating intervention research
Evaluating interpretations
New questions about nursing theory
Professional values and disciplinary knowledge
Nursing knowledge and the relevance gap
New questions about evidence-based nursing practice
New maps, new directions
References
Index

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