Language and Computers

ISBN-10: 1405183055
ISBN-13: 9781405183055
Edition: 2013
List price: $39.95 Buy it from $6.34
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Description: Language and Computers introduces students to the fundamentals of how computers are used to represent, process, and organize textual and spoken information. Concepts are grounded in real-world examples familiar to students’ experiences of using  More...

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Book details

List price: $39.95
Copyright year: 2013
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 10/22/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 250
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.122
Language: English

Language and Computers introduces students to the fundamentals of how computers are used to represent, process, and organize textual and spoken information. Concepts are grounded in real-world examples familiar to students’ experiences of using language and computers in everyday life.A real-world introduction to the fundamentals of how computers process language, written specifically for the undergraduate audience, introducing key concepts from computational linguistics.Offers a comprehensive explanation of the problems computers face in handling natural languageCovers a broad spectrum of language-related applications and issues, including major computer applications involving natural language and the social and ethical implications of these new developmentsThe book focuses on real-world examples with which students can identify, using these to explore the technology and how it worksFeatures “under-the-hood” sections that give greater detail on selected advanced topics, rendering the book appropriate for more advanced courses, or for independent study by the motivated reader.

What This Book Is About
Overview for Instructors
Acknowledgments
Prologue: Encoding Language on Computers
Where do we start?
Encoding language
Writing systems used for human languages
Alphabetic systems
Syllabic systems
Logographic writing systems
Systems with unusual realization
Relation to language
Encoding written language
Storing information on a computer
Using bytes to store characters
Encoding spoken language
The nature of speech
Articulatory properties
Acoustic properties
Measuring speech
Reading a spectrogram
Relating written and spoken language
Language modeling for automatic speech recognition
Writers' Aids
Introduction
Kinds of spelling errors
Nonword errors
Real-word errors
Spell checkers
Nonword error detection
Isolated-word spelling correction
Under the Hood 3: Dynamic programming
Word correction in context
What is grammar?
Under the Hood 4: Complexity of languages
Techniques for correcting words in context
Under the Hood 5: Spell checking for web queries
Style checkers
Language Tutoring Systems
Learning a language
Computer-assisted language learning
Why make CA LL tools aware of language?
What is involved in adding linguistic analysis?
Tokenization
Part-of-speech tagging
Beyond words
An example ICALL system: TAGARELA
Modeling the learner
Searching
Introduction
Searching through structured data
Searching through unstructured data
Information need
Evaluating search results
Example: Searching the web
How search engines work
Under the Hood 6: A brief tour of HTML
Searching semi-structured data with regular expressions
Syntax of regular expressions
Grep: An example of using regular expressions
Under the Hood 7: Finite-state automata
Searching text corpora
Why corpora?
Annotated language corpora
Under the Hood 8: Searching for linguistic patterns on the web
Classifying Documents: From Junk Mail Detection to Sentiment Classification
Automatic document classification
How computers "learn"
Supervised learning
Unsupervised learning
Features and evidence
Application: Spam filtering
Base rates
Payoffs
Back to documents
Some types of document classifiers
The Naive Bayes classifier
Under the Hood 9: Naive Bayes
The perceptron
Which classifier to use
From classification algorithms to context of use
Dialog Systems
Computers that "converse"?
Why dialogs happen
Automating dialog
Getting started
Establishing a goal
Accepting the user's goal
The caller plays her role
Giving the answer
Negotiating the end of the conversation
Conventions and framing expectations
Some framing expectations for games and sports
The framing expectations for dialogs
Properties of dialog
Dialog moves
Speech acts
Conversational maxims
Dialog systems and their tasks
Eliza
Under the Hood 10: How Eliza works
Spoken dialogs
How to evaluate a dialog system
Why is dialog important?
Machine Translation Systems
Computers that "translate"?
Applications of translation
Translation needs
What is machine translation really for?
Translating Shakespeare
The translation triangle
Translation and meaning
Words and meanings
Words and other languages
Synonyms and translation equivalents
Word alignment
IBM Model 1
Under the Hood 11: The noisy channel model
Under the Hood 12: Phrase-based statistical translation
Commercial automatic translation
Translating weather reports
Translation in the European Union
Prospects for translators
Epilogue: Impact of Language Technology
References
Concept Index

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