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Psychology of Diversity Beyond Prejudice and Racism

ISBN-10: 1405162147
ISBN-13: 9781405162142
Edition: 2014
List price: $69.99 Buy it from $37.96
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Description: 1. Overall Goal of the BookThis prospectus is for a new book following on the conceptual structure and general approach of Prejudice and Racism 2/e (P&R), but reorganizing and revising the content; concepts; and pedagogical approach in several  More...

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Book details

List price: $69.99
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Limited
Publication date: 8/23/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 428
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.70" long x 0.82" tall
Weight: 1.848
Language: English

1. Overall Goal of the BookThis prospectus is for a new book following on the conceptual structure and general approach of Prejudice and Racism 2/e (P&R), but reorganizing and revising the content; concepts; and pedagogical approach in several specific ways. The proposed volume will:A. Keep the emphasis on multilevel analysis and the integration of history into it, but to expand the analytical frame to include greater consideration of bias towards other groups and focus less specifically on Black Americans. The primary analysis and examples will continue to reflect the experience of Blacks in the United States but will analyze current trends in population diversity and employ additional examples to illustrate the conceptual and practical issues from diverse groups. Both the common forces and unique qualities of bias toward different groups will be explored.B. Introduce key concepts and make the organizing principles relate more directly to current issues. Controversial issues that will be considered include:1. Why should one be for or against affirmative action?2. Why is a color-blind philosophy on one hand, desirable as a means of diminishing racial bias, and on the other, an insidious from of racial bias?3. What is fairness in social justice and how can/should it be achieved?4. How do targets of stigma and discrimination cope with basic life tasks; and how does the threat of stigma and discrimination influence achieving these tasks?5. What are the psychological health consequences that are related to the social dynamics of prejudice and racism?C. More directly addresses the issues of power and privilege as factors that influence, in both overt and subtle ways, achieving social justice.D. Continue the individual, institutional and cultural level analysis of prejudice and emphasize how this draws upon a multidisciplinary perspective. This will be based on more recent research that has explored more fully the impact and origin of individual level processes, including social neuroscience evidence of racial bias.E. Reorder the sequence of topics so that the practical issues and problems come earlier in the text. This presentation will help students to think critically about how these problems arise, how complex they are, and which approaches may hold then most promise for ameliorating them. This organization has great appeal to students as they are often living with these issues and problems and thus understand them from practical cultural and political experience. This provides a useful platform for learning the theoretical and research perspectives.F. Develop more pedagogical activities and exercises that will allow each instructor and groups of students to personalize the analysis and the problems. Dr. Vietze has used P&R for several semesters with good effect, but needed to develop specialized activities and assignments to make the text more accessible for students and instructors. She will bring some of those activities and ideas to his new volume.2. Highlights of the BookIn addition to the specific changes identified in the previous section, compared to Prejudice and Racism 2/e there are two general types of changes in the proposed book. These are:1. Content changes—This book will include more examples and illustrations that are based on the diverse and contemporary experiences and contemporary problems of prejudice and racism; it will also focus on publicly acknowledged points of contention. Research will be updated.2. Pedagogical changes--This book will include instructional material that will allow instructors to personalize problems, and exercises to fit the students and instructional approach used in a course. This instructor guide could be delivered using a website or DVD.

Preface
Dedication
Acknowledgments
Framing Diversity
The Psychology of Diversity: Challenges and Benefits
Introduction
The Goals of This Book
What is Diversity About?
A Taxonomy of Diversity
When Diversity Does Not Add Up To Equality
Perspectives on Diversity
Behavioral Science and Diversity
Diversity within Diversity
The Diversity Divide: Benefits versus Challenges
What Are the Benefits of Diversity?
What Are the Challenges of Diversity?
Organization of this Book
Summary
Central Concepts in the Psychology of Diversity
Introduction
Understanding Diversity
What is the Psychology of Diversity?
What's in a Social Group Label?
Social Biases: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination
What Are They Like? Stereotypes
How Do I Feel About Them? Prejudice
How Do I Treat Them? Discrimination and Fairness
Biases Below and Above the Surface
The Structure of Social Bias
Racism: A Case Example of Social Bias
The Different Layers of Social Bias
Research Methods for the Study of Social Bias
The Scientific Enterprise
Making Sense of the World Scientifically: Theories and Research Methods
Testing Our Ideas: Research Designs
Making Meaning from Research: Measures and Analysis of Data
Summary
Historical Perspectives on Diversity in the United States
Introduction
Push-Pull: Dynamics of Diversity
Immigration, Importation, and Citizenship
U.S. Population Growth is Fueled by Immigration
Who Are Citizens of the United States?
Immigration and Ethnic Diversity
Benevolent Sexism as Legal Argument
Cultural Conditioning of American Indians
Negative Responses to Diversity
Immigration Policy
Civil Rights
Diversity and Civil Rights
Expanding Diversity and Inclusion in U.S. Society Through Civil Rights
Affirmative Action as a Diversity Approach
A Nation of Minorities
Challenges of Diversity
Individual Rights, Diversity, and Prejudice Collide
Diversity and Difference
Majority and Minority
Summary
Psychological Processes
Personality and Individual Differences: How Different Types of People Respond to Diversity in Different Ways
Introduction
Origins of Prejudice: Allport's Lens Model
Personality and Prejudice
The Abnormality of Prejudice: The Psychodynamic Model
Psychodynamic Theory and Prejudice
Prejudice against Difference: The Authoritarian Personality
The Legacy of Authoritarianism: Contemporary Measures
The Normality of Prejudice
Conformity and Norms
Social Dominance
Authoritarianism and SDO: Sometimes a Lethal Combination
Religion and Prejudice
Politics and Prejudice
Individual Differences in Blatant and Subtle Prejudice
Summary
Social Cognition and Categorization: Distinguishing "Us" from "Them"
Introduction
We Are Social Animals
How We Think About People: Social Cognition
Acquiring Information: Attributions
Integrating Information: Cognitive Consistency
How We Think About Groups: Social Categorization and Group Membership
Who Is "In" and Who Is "Out"? Social Categorization
Thinking Differently About Us and Them
What Can We Do? Reducing Bias and Embracing Diversity
"Me" and "You" Instead of "Us" and "Them": Decategorization
Playing on the Same Team: Recategorization
Implications and Applications of Category-based Models for Reducing Bias
Summary
Social Identity, Roles, and Relations: Motivational Influences in Responses to Diversity
Introduction
Feeling Good about Us: Social Identity
Who Am I? Personal and Social Identity
Many Me's: Multiple Identities
My Group Is Better Than Yours: Creating Positive Identity
Confusing "What Is" with "What Should Be": Social Roles and System Justification
Blaming the Victim: Attributions to Groups
Judging Who People Are by What Jobs They Do: Social Roles
Maintaining the Status Quo: System Justification
Slipping into the Darkness: Groups in Competition
"You Dirty Rattler": Conflict between Groups
Threatening What We Have and What We Are: Realistic and Symbolic Conflict
What Can We Do? Changing How Groups Relate
Achieving More Together Than Alone: Superordinate Goals
Putting the Pieces Together: Jigsaw Classroom
You Complete Me (Us): Mutual Intergroup Differentiation
Which Approach Is Best?
Summary
Is Bias in the Brain?
Introduction
What's Under the Hood? The Organization of the Human Brain
How We Know How the Brain Functions
Brain Structure and Function
Brain Structure, Diversity, and Intergroup Relations
Warning! Difference Ahead!
Who Are You? Race and Face Perception
Brain Function and Intergroup Bias
Explicit and Implicit Bias
Contemporary Prejudice
What Can We Do? Addressing Implicit Bias
Acknowledging Implicit Bias
Controlling Implicit Bias Through Unconscious Goals
Summary
Coping and Adapting to Stigma and Difference
Introduction
Social Stigma and Cultural Difference
The Social "Stain" of Stigma
How Social and Cultural Difference Divides Us
Racial Socialization and Acculturation
Preparing Children for a Racialized Society: Racial Socialization
Adapting to a Different Culture: Acculturation
Stresses Caused by Stigma and Difference
Perceiving Discrimination is Bad for Your Health
Stereotype Threat Is "in the Air"
Coping with Perceived Discrimination
How Group Membership Influences the Ways We Cope with Discrimination
The Ways We Cope with Discrimination Individually
Collective Identities
How We Relate to Our Racial Group: Racial Identity
How We Relate to Our Ethnic Group: Ethnic Identity
Summary
Intergroup Interactions: Pitfalls and Promises
Introduction
Psychological Challenges of Intergroup Interaction
Preparing for the "First Date"
Where Do We Go from Here? Experiences in Intergroup Interactions
You (Can) Complete Me
Under the Radar? Implicit Bias and Intergroup Interaction
Some Conclusions About Intergroup Interactions
The Promise of Positive Intergroup Interaction
How Does Contact Work?
Friends of My Friends
Just Imagine!
Summary
Culture, Power, and Institutions
Cultural Diversity: Preferences, Meaning, and Difference
Introduction
What is Culture?
When Do Race Preferences Begin?
Why Do Early Preferences Matter?
How Do Cultures Differ?
What We Value
How We See Power
How We Relate to Others: Individualism-Collectivism
How We Perceive "the Other": Enemyship
How We Understand Time: Psychological Time
How We Create Meaning: Religion
Cultural Diversity
Now We See It, Now We Don't: Perspectives on Cultural Diversity
Culture Wars Promote Conflict and Contest
Culture Peace Promotes Representation and Belonging
Preventing Bias and Favoritism
Summary
Social Roles and Power in a Diverse Society
Introduction
Power Matters
Who's Got the Power? Power Dynamics and Diversity
It's Just Natural: The Power of Social Roles and Social Groups
Who's at the Top and Why? CEOs, Lawyers, and Janitors
Multiple Me: Intersectionality and Power
A Social Hierarchy: What's Diversity Got To Do With It?
Psychological Sources of Power
Skin Color, Social Role, and Power
Social Dominance: My Group Versus Your Group
Social Class as a Source of Power
Pathways to Fairness: Reducing Bias in Power Dynamics
You Have More Power-What Should I Expect?
Maybe the Status Quo Has Too Much Power
Stereotyping: Can It Help and Not Harm?
Summary
The Challenge of Diversity for Institutions
Introduction
Portraits of Institutional Bias
Texaco: Recognizing Diversity Bias and Doing Something About It
An All-Girls Math Class: Educational Bias on Purpose
How Institutional Bias Operates
The Origins of Institutional Bias: A Case Example
Types of Institutional Bias
Most Bias is Standard-of-Practice Bias
Can Affirmative Action Address Institutional Bias?
Home Ownership and Mortgage Lending
Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Age Disparities in Unemployment
The Criminal Justice System and Ethnicity Disparities
Ethnic Disparities in Capital Punishment
Healthcare, Marriage, and Environmental Safety
What Makes Institutional Bias so Challenging?
Effects of Institutional Bias Are Far-reaching
Emotions May Run High
Maybe Poverty Leads to Institutional Bias
Preventing Institutional Bias is a Challenge
Valuing Diversity
Diversity Training in Higher Education
Summary
The Psychology of Diversity: Principles and Prospects
Introduction
Diversity Is Diverse
Diversity When It Is All Good
Diversity Is Normal
Doing Diversity Is Hard
Diversity Demands Change
Diversity Sometimes Stands Opposed to Fairness
Bias Has Deep-seated Psychological Roots and Consequences
Diversity Complicates Interpersonal and Intergroup Interactions
Principles of Diversity: What Have We Learned in This Book?
Bias Against Diversity Is Not Inevitable
Diversity Presents Opportunities to Learn
Interaction Improves Attitudes Toward Other Groups
Diverse Contexts Promote Flexibility, Adaptability, and Creativity
Personal Motivation Can Limit or Prevent Bias
Belief That Biases Can Be Changed Increases People's Interest in Diversity
People Can Learn To Be Unprejudiced
Approach and Avoidance Motivations Are Keys to Diversity Dynamics
Individual Ideology and Values Determine Diversity Attitudes, Support, and Actions
People Are Resilient in the Face of Discrimination
Respect Promotes Diversity Among Members of Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups
Support for Diversity Is Greatest When it Includes Your Group
Programs to Promote Intergroup Relations Can Succeed
Trust Is Crucial for Dealing with Difference and Change
Organizational Values, Goals, and Practices Determine the Success of Diversity Efforts
Conclusion
Glossary
Index

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