Philosophy in Practice An Introduction to the Main Questions

ISBN-10: 1405116188

ISBN-13: 9781405116183

Edition: 2nd 2003 (Revised)

Authors: Adam Morton
List price: $66.95
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Description: This introductory textbook focuses on philosophy as an activity rather than as a doctrine, and concentrates on issues of reason, experience, and reality. At the heart of the book is a sequence of exercises, activities and examples for the reader.

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Book details

List price: $66.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2003
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 12/30/2003
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 1.298
Language: English

Thanks
Note to Teachers
The Contract
The Lure of Certainty
Certainty and Doubt
Patterns of Thought
How Conventional Are Your Beliefs?
Conviction, Opinion, Doubt, and Belief
Trusting Textbooks
Certainty: the Closed-belief Trap
Cheat: a Story about Deception
Tree-worshipers and Flat-earthers
Revising History: 1984
Doubt
Doubting What Someone Says
How Skeptical Are You?
Moral Skepticism
When is a Skeptic a Cynic?
Socratic Skepticism
Conclusions
Further Reading
Sources of Conviction
Authority
Faith
Reason
Arguments
Eight Short Arguments
Puzzling Arguments
Arguments within Arguments
Proofs of God
Paradoxes
What to Trust on the Internet
Transforming the Question
Conclusions
Further Reading
Rationalism
Optimism about Reason
Individualism
Galileo's Rationalism
Impossible Theories
Descartes' Optimism: Certainty from Doubt
Doubting Anything versus Doubting Everything
Demon Possibilities, Paranoia, and Fantasy
The Matrix
How Doubt Can Increase Belief
Skepticism and Religious Faith
"I Think, Therefore I Am"
Doubting Even One's Own Existence
Degrees of Certainty
Conclusions
Further Reading
Rationalism versus Relativism in Morals
The Appeal of Moral Rationalism
Four Golden Rules
Equality and Justice
Plato's Moral Rationalism
Three Arguments from Plato's Republic
Moral Relativism
For and Against Moral Relativism
The Ik
Law and Morality
Existentialism
What Is Morality About?
Conclusions
Further Reading
Induction and Deduction
Simple Induction
Applying Simple Induction
Seeing Patterns in Nature
Deduction 1: Syllogisms
Deduction 2: Validity
Deduction 3: Venn Diagrams and Counterexamples
Induction versus Deduction
The Induction-friendliness of the World
Diagramming Induction-friendliness
Hume's Discovery: Nightmare or Liberation?
Causation and Induction
Choosing the Right Concepts
Conclusions
Further Reading
The Retreat from Certainty
Feeble Reason?
Hume on the Power(lessness) of Reason
Four Famous Passages from Hume
Four Kinds of Irrationality
Degrees of Certainty
Valuing Values
How Tolerant Are You?
Mill on Freedom of Expression
Toleration in Science
Making Uncertainty Pay
Conclusions
Further Reading
Postcard History of Philosophy I
Life in An Uncertain World
Utilitarianism
Naive Utilitarianism
Choosing the Utilitarian Action
Pleasure, Pain, and Consequences
Hedonism
Four Styles of Advice
Bentham and Mill
Quotations from Bentham and Mill
Arguments for Utilitarianism
Objecting to the Arguments
Two Controversial Recommendations
The Appeal of Utilitarianism
Utilitarianism and Risk
Conclusions
Further Reading
Kantian Ethics
Means and Ends
Motive, Rule, and Means
Kant's Argument
Evaluating Kant's Argument
Consequentialism versus Deontology
Diagnosing Disagreements
When it Might Be Right to Lie and Break Promises
Strong Deontology
The Demands of Morality: the Case of Famine
Morality in an Uncertain World
Conclusions
Further Reading
Empiricism
Are You an Empiricist?
The Appeal of Empiricism
Some Empiricist Views
The Idea Idea
Translation Exercises
Locke's "Way of Ideas"
Locke against Innate Ideas
Concepts, Beliefs, and Sensations
Ways of Defining Concepts
Barriers to Concept Acquisition
Empirical Evidence
Adequate Evidence?
Conclusions
Further Reading
Beyond Empiricism
Risk of What?
Accuracy versus Informativeness about Friendship
Other Minds
Testing the Argument from Analogy
Folk Psychology: the Argument from Explanation
Being Wrong about Yourself
The Inference to the Best Explanation
Explanation
Justifying Astrology
Inference to the Best Explanation versus Simple Induction
Perception and Belief
Falsification
The Hypothetico-deductive Method
A Test Case: Continental Drift
Conclusions
Further Reading
Objectivity
Escape from the Cave
Background Beliefs: First Test Case--Probability
Background Beliefs: Second Test Case--Moral Status
Reflective Equilibrium
How Ethics Is Like Science
Fallibilism
Conclusions
Further Reading
Postcard History of Philosophy II
Reality
Materialism and Dualism
Materialism, Naturalism, Idealism
Materialisms
Are You a Materialist or an Idealist?
Dualism
Leibniz on the Unimaginability of Materialism
Crude and Subtle Materialisms
Lucretius on Mind and Body
Antidepressants, Psychosomatic Medicine, and the Mind--Body Problem
Materialism and Self-knowledge
Technology versus Introspection
Eliminative Materialism
Five Typical Quotations
Conclusions
Further Reading
Morality for Naturalists
God and Morality
The Moralist's Nightmare
Hobbes on the State of Nature
A Restaurant Dilemma
The Prisoner's Dilemma
Hobbes and the Prisoner's Dilemma
Implicit Contract
Imaginary Social Contracts
Morals in Nature? Rousseau, Hegel, Marx
Real States of Nature
Moral Motivation: Decency, Villainy, and Hypocrisy
Morals within Nature?
Conclusions
Further Reading
Deep Illusions
Primary and Secondary Qualities
Hard Questions about Color
Color as Illusory
Free Will
Freedom and Responsibility
Freedom as a Secondary Quality
Fatalism versus Determinism
Identity through Time
Personal Identity: Problem Cases
Personal Identity: Theories
The Meanings of Lives
Conclusions
Further Reading
Realism
Science versus the Everyday World
Counting Objects
Berkeley's Idealism
A Puzzle about Pain: the Locations of Qualities
Apples, Surprises, Scopes, and Existence
Verificationism
Instrumentalism versus Realism
First Case Study: Crystal Spheres
Second Case Study: Phlogiston
Arguments for Realism and Instrumentalism
The Last Word
Conclusions
Further Reading
Postcard History of Philosophy III
Definitions
Index
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