Global Tectonics

ISBN-10: 1405107774
ISBN-13: 9781405107778
Edition: 3rd 2009 (Revised)
List price: $113.95 Buy it from $28.12
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Description: Providing a comprehensive and accessible introduction to all aspects of global tectonics, this new edition has been expanded to include chapters on Precambrian tectonics, the supercontinent cycle and the implications of plate tectonics for  More...

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Book details

List price: $113.95
Edition: 3rd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 1/20/2009
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 496
Size: 7.50" wide x 9.75" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.002
Language: English

Providing a comprehensive and accessible introduction to all aspects of global tectonics, this new edition has been expanded to include chapters on Precambrian tectonics, the supercontinent cycle and the implications of plate tectonics for environmental change.

An English geologist and educator, Frederick Vine has made significant contributions in the field of plate tectonics. In the early 1960s, his research of the ocean floor off the coast of Iceland (with colleague Drummond Matthews) provided conclusive field evidence for the hypothesis of seafloor spreading, an idea first proposed by Harry Hess of Princeton University in 1960. The seafloor spreading hypothesis states that oceanic crust forms along the mid-ocean ridges, spreading laterally in both directions. During their research, Vine and Matthews discovered alternating magnetic patterns in the igneous rocks on both sides of the Mid-Atlantic ridge just south of Iceland. This discovery not only supported the concept of continental drift, but also provided direct evidence for changes in Earth's geomagnetic field over geologic time. Until the late 1950s, most geologists thought that the rocks of the ocean floor represented the oldest part of the Earth's crust. The research of Vine and Matthews, however, showed that rocks on the ocean floor are actually a relatively newly formed part of Earth's crust. Vine was educated in England, receiving his B.A. and Ph.D. in geology from St. John's College, Cambridge University. From 1965 to 1970, he taught at Princeton University in the department of Geological and Geophysical Sciences. He returned to England in the early 1970s and, in 1974, was appointed to his current position as professor of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Historical perspective
Continental drift
Sea floor spreading and the birth of plate tectonics
Geosynclinal theory
Impact of plate tectonics
The interior of the Earth
Earthquake seismology
Introduction
Earthquake descriptors
Seismic waves
Earthquake location
Mechanism of earthquakes
Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes
Ambiguity in focal mechanism solutions
Seismic tomography
Velocity structure of the Earth
Composition of the Earth
The crust
The continental crust
Upper continental crust
Middle and lower continental crust
The oceanic crust
Oceanic layer
Oceanic layer
Oceanic layer
Ophiolites
Metamorphism of oceanic crust
Differences between continental and oceanic crust
The mantle
Introduction
Seismic structure of the mantle
Mantle composition
The mantle low velocity zone
The mantle transition zone
The lower mantle
The core
Rheology of the crust and mantle
Introduction
Brittle deformation
Ductile deformation
Lithospheric strength profiles
Measuring continental deformation
Deformation in the mantle
Isostasy
Introduction
Airy's hypothesis
Pratt's hypothesis
Flexure of the lithosphere
Isostatic rebound
Tests of isostasy
Lithosphere and asthenosphere
Terrestrial heat flow
Continental drift
Introduction
Continental reconstructions
Euler's theorem
Geometric reconstructions of continents
The reconstruction of continents around the Atlantic
The reconstruction of Gondwana
Geologic evidence for continental drift
Paleoclimatology
Paleontologic evidence for continental drift
Paleomagnetism
Introduction
Rock magnetism
Natural remanent magnetization
The past and present geomagnetic field
Apparent polar wander curves
Paleogeographic reconstructions based on paleomagnetism
Sea floor spreading and transform faults
Sea floor spreading
Introduction
Marine magnetic anomalies
Geomagnetic reversals
Sea floor spreading
The Vine-Matthews hypothesis
Magnetostratigraphy
Dating of the ocean floor
Transform faults
Introduction
Ridge-ridge transform faults
Ridge jumps and transform fault offsets
The framework of plate tectonics
Plates and plate margins
Distribution of earthquakes
Relative plate motions
Absolute plate motions
Hotspots
True polar wander
Cretaceous superplume
Direct measurement of relative plate motions
Finite plate motions
Stability of triple junctions
Pre

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