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Fatigue of Structures and Materials

ISBN-10: 1402068077
ISBN-13: 9781402068072
Edition: 2nd 2009
Authors: Jaap Schijve
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Description: This is primarily a textbook written for engineers, students and teachers, and for people working on fatigue problems of engineering structures and materials. An important theme is what happens in the material of an engineering structure subjected  More...

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Book details

Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2009
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 12/22/2008
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 623
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.684
Language: English

This is primarily a textbook written for engineers, students and teachers, and for people working on fatigue problems of engineering structures and materials. An important theme is what happens in the material of an engineering structure subjected to a spectrum of cyclic loads in service.

Symbols, Acronyms and Units
Introduction to Fatigue of Structures and Materials
References
Fatigue under Constant-Amplitude Loading (Chapters 2-8)
Fatigue as a Phenomenon in the Material
Introduction
Different phases of the fatigue life
Crack initiation
Crack growth
The fatigue mechanism in more detail
Crystallographic aspects
Crack initiation at inclusions
Small cracks, crack growth barriers, thresholds
Number of crack nuclei
Surface effects
Crack growth and striations
Environmental effects
Cyclic tension and cyclic torsion
Characteristic features of fatigue failures
Microscopic characteristics
Macroscopic characteristics
Main topics of the present chapter
References
Stress Concentration at Notches
Introduction
Definition of Kt
Analytical calculations on stress concentrations
Effect of the notch geometry on Kt
Some additional aspects of stress concentrations
Superposition of notches
Methods for the determination of stress concentrations
Main topics of the present chapter
References
Residual Stress
Introduction
Different sources of residual stresses
Measurements or calculations of residual stresses
Estimation of the residual stress at a notch after a high load
How to remove residual stresses
Main topics of the present chapter
References
Stress Intensity Factors of Cracks
Introduction
Different types of cracks
Definition of the stress intensity factor
Examples of stress intensity factors
K factors obtained by superposition
Cracks with curved crack fronts
Crack opening and the state of stress
Crack tip plasticity
Some energy considerations
Determination of stress intensity factors
The similarity concept and the application of the stress intensity factor K
Main topics of the present chapter
References
Fatigue Properties
Introduction
Description of fatigue properties of unnotched material
Some general aspects of the fatigue strength of unnotched specimens
Relation between Sf and Su
Mean stress effects
The size effect for unnotched specimens
Type of loading, tension, bending, torsion
Combined loading
Low-cycle fatigue
Main topics of the present chapter
References
The Fatigue Strength of Notched Specimens
Introduction
The fatigue limit of notched specimens at Sm = 0
The similarity principle and the notch sensitivity
The size effect on the fatigue limit of notched specimens
The fatigue limit of notched specimens for Sm > 0
Notch effect under cyclic torsion
Notch effect on the fatigue limit for combined loading cases
Significance of the surface finish
Discussion on predictions of the fatigue limit
The S-N curves of notched specimens
The major topics of the present chapter
References
Fatigue Crack Growth. Analysis and Predictions
Introduction
Description of fatigue crack growth properties
Test results
The stress intensity factor and the similarity concept
Constant-�K tests
Fatigue crack growth regions
Crack closure
Plasticity induced crack closure and �Keff
Plane strain/plane stress
Thickness effect on fatigue crack growth
Other crack closure mechanisms
Crack growth data of different materials
Prediction of fatigue crack growth
Some basic aspects
Crack growth predictions for through cracks
Crack growth prediction for part through cracks
A final comment
Major topics of the present chapter
References
Load Spectra and Fatigue under Variable-Amplitude Loading (Chapters 9-11)
Load Spectra
Introduction
Different types of loads on a structure in service
Description of load histories
Determination of load spectra
The qualitative approach
The quantitative approach
Service-simulation fatigue tests and load spectra
Major aspects of the present chapter
References
Fatigue under Variable-Amplitude Loading
Introduction
The Miner rule
Effect of load cycles with stress amplitudes below the fatigue limit
Effect of notch root plasticity
Crack length at failure
What is basically wrong with the Miner rule?
Results of fatigue tests under VA loading
Alternative fatigue life prediction methods for VA loading
Damage calculations and extrapolation of S-N curves below the fatigue limit
The relative Miner rule
Strain history prediction model
Predictions based on service-simulation fatigue tests
Discussion of fatigue life predictions for VA loading
Life estimates for a specific component and the Miner rule
Considerations on the effect of the design stress level
Comparison between different options for design improvements
Comparison of different load spectra
Major topics of the present chapter
References
Fatigue Crack Growth under Variable-Amplitude Loading
Introduction
Crack growth under simple VA-stress histories
Crack growth under complex VA-stress histories
Crack growth prediction models for VA loading
Non-interaction model
Interaction models for prediction of fatigue crack growth under VA loading
Evaluation of prediction methods for fatigue crack growth under VA-load histories
Major topics of the present chapter
References
Fatigue Tests and Scatter (Chapters 12 and 13)
Fatigue and Scatter
Introduction
Sources of scatter
Description of scatter
Some practical aspects of scatter
Major topics of the present chapter
References
Fatigue Tests
Introduction
Purposes of fatigue test programs
Specimens
Fatigue test procedures
Reporting about fatigue test results
Aspects of crack growth measurements
Main topics of this chapter
References
Special Fatigue Conditions (Chapters 14-17)
Surface Treatments
Introduction
Aspects of surface treatments
Some practical aspects of surface treatments
Summary of major topics of the present chapter
References
Fretting Corrosion
Introduction
The fretting corrosion mechanism
Effects on fretting corrosion
Methods to avoid fretting corrosion problems
Topics of the present chapter
References
Corrosion Fatigue
Introduction
Aspects of corrosion fatigue
Corrosion fatigue in gaseous environments
Corrosion fatigue in liquid environments
Practical aspects of corrosion fatigue
A case history
Topics of the present chapter
References
High-Temperature and Low-Temperature Fatigue
Introduction
Two example of high-temperature fatigue
Fatigue properties at high temperatures
Fatigue at low temperatures
Some general comments
References
Fatigue of Joints and Structures (Chapters 18-20)
Fatigue of Joints
Introduction
Fatigue of lugs
Symmetric butt joints with rows of bolts or rivets
Bolts loaded in tension
Riveted and bolted joints with eccentricities
Adhesive-bonded joints
General discussion on predictions of fatigue properties of joints
Major topics of the present chapter
References
Fatigue of Welded Joints
Introduction
Some general aspects
Geometry aspects of welds
Fatigue life considerations for CA loading
Fatigue endurances of welded joints under VA loading
Two special cases
Spot welded joints
Major topics of the present chapter
References
Designing against Fatigue of Structures
Introduction
Different types of structural fatigue problems
Designing against fatigue
Uncertainties, scatter and safety margins
Uncertainties
Scatter and safety factors
Some case histories
Improved shoulder fillets
Secondary bending introduced by non-symmetric hole reinforcements
Cracked aircraft wing panel repaired with a poorly designed patch
Online structural health monitoring of the Tsing Ma Bridge
Summarizing conclusions
References
Fatigue Resistance of Fiber-Metal Laminates (Chapter 21)
Fatigue Resistance of Fiber-Metal Laminates
Introduction
Laminated sheet material without fibers
Fiber-metal laminates Arall and Glare
The fiber-metal laminate concept
Fiber-metal laminates as sheet material
Crack growth in Glare
Fatigue properties of Glare components
More about Glare
Some typical properties of Glare
Production and design aspects of Glare structures
Some summarizing remarks
References
Index

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