Instrumentation in Earthquake Seismology

ISBN-10: 1402029683

ISBN-13: 9781402029684

Edition: 2004

List price: $139.00
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Description: This work offers a unique coverage of modern seismic instrumentation. It provides not only detailed information on the basic understanding of seismic instruments but it also includes an overview of current equipment on the market. Furthermore, the following topics are included: - installing seismic stations, networks, and arrays - working with portable instruments - calibrating instruments - dealing with response information - and teaching about seismic instruments. This book is primarily intended for seismologists and technicians working with seismological instruments. The aim is that it should be used as a practical tool with only the amount of theory needed to understand the basic principles, and the answers to most practical problems should be found here. This book is written in such a way that it is understandable for a broad range of professionals working with seismological instruments and seismic data, whether students, engineers, or seismologists. Both practical and theoretical topics are covered, with the main emphasis on practical aspects. The book is based on the authors' (seismologist and physicist) experience working in this field for more than 25 years.

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Book details

List price: $139.00
Copyright year: 2004
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 7/7/2006
Binding: Mixed Media
Pages: 360
Size: 6.50" wide x 9.50" long x 0.80" tall
Weight: 1.782
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
Sensor
Recorder
Stations and networks
Arrays
Instrument correction and calibration
Seismic sensors
The standard inertia seismometer
Seismometer frequency response
Seismometer frequency response, alternative solution
The velocity transducer
Electromagnetic damping
Polarity convention
Instrument response curves, different representation
Sensor response to transient signals
Damping constant
Construction of seismic sensors
The Wood Anderson short period torsion sensor
Long period sensors
Garden-gate
Inverted pendulum
LaCoste
Sensor calibration coil
Active sensors
Accelerometers
Velocity broadband sensors
Extending the frequency response, inverse filtering and feed back
Theoretical aspects of active sensors
General response of a feedback system
The basic Force-Balanced Accelerometer
Broadband feedback seisometers
Other feedback techniques
Sensor self noise
Noise in passive sensors coupled to amplifiers, theoretical aspects
Some new trends in seismic sensors
Seismometers with electrochemical transducers
Micromachined accelerometers and seismometers
Sensor parameters
Frequency response
Sensitivity
Sensor dynamic range
Sensor linearity
Sensor cross axis sensitivity
Sensor gain and output
Examples of sensors
Exploration type 4.5 Hz geophone
Short period sensor, the L4-C
Accelerometer, the Kinemetrics Episensor
Broadband sensors, the Streckeisen STS-1 and STS-2 and Guralp CMG-3T
Negative feedback sensors, Lennartz LE-3D
Borehole sensors
Summary of sensor specifications
Which sensor to choose
Seismic noise
Observation of noise
Noise spectra
Relating power spectra to amplitude measurements
Origin of seismic noise
Analog to digital converter
Example of a simple analog to digital converter, the Flash ADC
Basic ADC properties
A typical ADC, the Ramp ADC
Multi channel ADC
Digitizers for a higher dynamic range
Oversampling for improvement of the dynamic range
Sigma Delta ADC, SDADC
How sigma-delta improves digitization noise: theory
Aliasing
Anti alias filters
Examples of digitizers
Seismic Recorders
Analog amplifier
Differential input-output
Analog filters
Amplifier specifications and noise
Analog recording
Introduction to digital recorders
Digitizing
Time stamping of data
Storage media and recording in a ring buffer
Seismic triggers
Summary of trigger parameters and their settings
Communication and data retrieval
Public domain data acquisition systems
Seismic recorders in use
The next generation recorder
Examples of recorders
Which recorder to choose
Correction for instrument response
Linear systems
Spectral analysis and the Fourier transform
Noise power spectrum
General instrument correction in frequency and time domain
General representation of the frequency response function
Anti alias filters
Instrument correction and polarity
Combining response curves
Common ways of giving response information
GSE
SEED
SEISAN
Seismic stations
Geographical location of a seismic station
Site selection and seismic noise survey
Installation of the seismic station
Sensor installation
Broadband sensor installation
Borehole installations
What is a good VLP station
Temporary installation of seismic stations
Lightning and over-voltage protection
Power
Stations running off the main AC supply
Batteries
Power sources
Solar cells
Wind generators
Fuel cells
Seismic networks
Purpose of seismic networks
Network geometry
Network configuration: physical and virtual networks
Physical seismic networks
Communication standards
Virtual seismic networks
The choice between physical and virtual seismic systems
Seismic data transmission
Analog data transmission
Radio links
Simplex-duplex
Point to point or point to multi point radio networks
Spread spectrum
Radio link construction and equipment
Radio links with repeater stations
Telephone and satellite
Digital data transmission protocols and some examples of their use
Serial data communication
TCP/IP communication
Compression of digital data
Error correction methods used with seismic signals
Seismic data transmission and timing
Communication and graphics
Examples of networks
Running a seismic network
Physical operation
Data processing
How to make your own network
Seismic arrays
Basic array parameters
Array transfer function
Instruments characteristics
Field arrangement
Example of a portable array
Calibration and testing
Test equipment and recording of test signals
Sensors
Sensor free period
Seismometer damping
Determining calibration coil motor constant
Polarity and sensor orientation
Frequency response using harmonic drive methods
Lissajous figures
Methods for absolute calibration of a sensor
Shaking table
Using the ground as a shaking table
Calibration by stepwise motion
Determining sensitivity of accelerometer by tilt
Use of the calibration pulse
Using pseudo random signals for calibration
Recorder
Measuring instrument self noise
Example of a practical noise measurement
Basic electronics
Basic terms
Electric charge
Electric potential, current and power
Kirchhoff laws
Passive components
Resistors, inductors and capacitors
Connection of components in series and parallel
A passive non-linear component: the diode
DC and AC signals
Decibels
Complex impedances and response
Power supply
Common laboratory instruments
Amplifiers
Basic amplifier configurations
Active filters
Introduction to logical circuits
Example: A daily calibration sequence generator for seismometers
References
Company references
Index
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