Computational Structure of Life Cycle Assessment

ISBN-10: 1402006721

ISBN-13: 9781402006722

Edition: 2002

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Description: Life Cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool for environmental decision-support in relation to products from the cradle to the grave. Until now, more emphasis has been put on the inclusion quantitative models and databases and on the design of guidebooks for applying LCA than on the integrative aspect of combining these models and data. This is a remarkable thing, since LCA in practice deals with thousands of quantitative data items that have to be combined in the correct manner. For this, one needs mathematical rules and algorithmic principles for carrying out an LCA. This book presents the first coherent treatment of the mathematical and algorithmic aspects of LCA. These computational aspects are presented in matrix form, so that a concise and elegant formulation is achieved. This form, moreover, provides a platform for further extension of analysis using perturbation theory, structural theory and economic input-output analysis.

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Book details

Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Springer
Publication date: 5/31/2002
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 243
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.50" long x 0.75" tall
Weight: 1.452
Language: English

Preface
Introduction
Purpose of the book
Aim
Motivation
Elements of LCA
Background of the book
Structure of the book
Outline
Notation
The basic model for inventory analysis
Representation of processes and flows
The inventory problem and its solution
General formulation of the basic model for inventory analysis
Some notes on the basic model
Geometric interpretation of inventory analysis
An interpretation of the scaling factors
An interpretation of the intensity matrix
The refined model for inventory analysis
Cut-off
Formulation of the problem
Adding hollow processes to the technology matrix
Replacing non-zero numbers for flows that are cut-off by zeros
Removing cut-off flows from the technology matrix
Brief discussion
Multifunctionality and allocation
Formulation of the problem
The substitution method
The partitioning method
The surplus method
Other methods
Brief discussion
System boundaries
Economic and environmental flows
Cut-off
Other product systems
Goods and wastes
Choice of suppliers
Formulation of the problem
Comparison of alternative systems
Representing a mixing process
Brief discussion
Closed-loop recycling
Formulation of the problem
Solution with the pseudoinverse
Comparison with the partitioning method
Comparison with the substitution method
Brief discussion
Inclusion of aggregated systems
Some special unit processes and flows
Consumption processes
The reference flow
Transport processes
Storage processes
Waste treatment processes
Waste flows
Environmental flows
More than one reference flow
The comparison of product alternatives
A database of inventory tables
Structural universality and sleeping processes
Types of final demand
Cradle-to-grave analysis
Cradle-to-gate analysis
Gate-to-grave analysis
More general analyses
General formulation of the refined model for inventory analysis
An extended example
Advanced topics in inventory analysis
Alternative ways of formulating and solving the inventory problem
The sequential method
Petri nets
Linear programming
Cramer's rule
Expansion of the inverse as a power series
Feedback loops in the technology matrix
Solution with matrix inversion
The network as an infinite sequence
Algebraic manipulation of systems of equations
The use of a power series expansion
Singularity of the technology matrix
Allocation in economic models
The supply/use framework
Negative scaling factors: the Hawkins-Simon condition
The technology assumptions
Relation with input-output analysis
Basics of input-output analysis and its environmental extension
Comparison of LCA and IOA
IOA instead of LCA
Hybrid analysis
Tiered hybrid analysis
Internally solved hybrid analysis
Perturbation theory
Some general results
Perturbation of the technology matrix
Perturbation of the intervention matrix
Perturbation of the final demand vector
Some examples
Uncertainties and their propagation
Uncertainties in data
Uncertainties in results
Discrete choices
Monte Carlo simulations
Change of technology
Numerical stability
Round-off
Rescaling
Structural theory
Some definitions
Summary measures
The condition number
Other characteristics
Correlation analysis
Multivariate methods
Visual tools
Spy plots
Other graphics
Beyond the inventory analysis
Impact assessment
Impact categories and characterisation models
Derivation of characterisation factors
Classification
Characterisation
Normalisation
Grouping
Weighting
Interpretation
Contribution analysis
Structural analysis
Perturbation analysis
Uncertainty analysis
Key issue analysis
Comparative analysis
Discernibility analysis
Further extensions
Non-linear models
Spatially differentiated models
Dynamic models
Issues of implementation
Sparse matrices and location matrices
Matrix inversion
The inverse
The pseudoinverse
Statistics of very long series
Design of software for LCA
Matrix algebra
General concepts
Special matrices
Basic operations
Basic properties
Partitioned matrices
Systems of linear equations
Main terms and symbols
Matlab code for most important algorithms
References
Index
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