Religion in Japan Unity and Diversity

ISBN-10: 1133934811
ISBN-13: 9781133934813
Edition: 5th 2014
Authors: H. Byron Earhart
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Description: In continuous print since 1969, Earhart's classic text explores religion in Japan as a complex tapestry of different religious strands, reflecting both the unity and diversity of Japanese culture. Tracing the development of religious traditions from  More...

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Book details

List price: $142.95
Edition: 5th
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 1/1/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 312
Size: 6.25" wide x 9.00" long x 0.50" tall
Weight: 1.276
Language: English

In continuous print since 1969, Earhart's classic text explores religion in Japan as a complex tapestry of different religious strands, reflecting both the unity and diversity of Japanese culture. Tracing the development of religious traditions from the prehistoric era through modern times, Earhart explores the vital influence of Shinto, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and folk religion, drawing on cutting-edge scholarship and contemporary religious practices. Presuming no technical or academic background, the text helps students identify key Japanese religious themes, which include the proximity of humans and gods, the religious character of the family, the bond between religion and the nation, and the pervasiveness of religion in everyday life.

H. Byron Earhart studied under Mircea Eliade and Joseph M. Kitagawa at the University of Chicago, where he received a doctorate in History of Religions. He has conducted research in Japan for his dissertation on the "mountain religion" of Shugendo, and for work on folk religion and new religions. He is professor emeritus in the Department of Comparative Religion at Western Michigan University, which awarded him a Distinguished Faculty Scholar award for his numerous publications. A number of his works have been translated into Japanese. His most recent book is MOUNT FUJI: ICON OF JAPAN (University of South Carolina, 2011). His next book is a comparative study of amulets.

Preface
Acknowledgments
Table of Japanese Religious History
Map of Japan
Introduction
Five Major Religious Strands
Unity and Diversity
Persistent Themes in Japanese Religious History
The Closeness of Human Beings, Gods, and Nature
The Religious Character of the Family
The Importance of Purification, Specific Rituals, and Amulets
The Prominence of Local Festivals and Individual Cults
The Pervasiveness of Religion in Everyday Life
The Intimate Bond Between Religion and the Nation
The Traditional Worldview
The Formation of Religion in Japan
The Prehistoric Heritage
The Beginnings of Japanese Culture
The Evidence for the Earliest Religion in Japan
Dealing with the Dead: Burial, Jars, and Tombs
Fertility: Rice and Figurines
Kami from Heaven and Female Shamans
The Kami Tradition
The Early Kami Tradition in Japan
Tradition and Religion in Cross-Cultural Perspective-Tradition as Illusion
Features of the Kami Tradition: Sacred Spaces
The Mythological Tradition: Yin, Yang, Yamato Rulers, and Tension Between Kami and Buddhas
The Ritual Tradition: Enthronement, Purification, Festivals, and Divinations
Early Buddhism in Japan: Indian, Chinese, and Korean Influence
Buddhism: The Doctrine Most Excellent: Enters Japan
The Power of Buddhism: Protection, Healing, and Rites for the Dead
The First Nuns and Monks in Japan
The First Buddhist Temples in Japan
Indian Buddhism in Japan
Popular Preaching: Dharma, Karma, and Miraculous Stories
State Buddhism and Popular Buddhism
Daoism and Confucianism: Chinese Importations
Two Chinese "Ways"
The "Way" of Daoism and the Chinese Worldview
Daoism and Daoist Influence in Japan
The Bureau of Yin and Yang
The "Way" of Confucianism and Japan: Shotoku's "Constitution"
Confucian Influence: A "University" and Worship of Confucius
Confucianism and Japanese Society
Daoism and Confucianism as Japanese Traditions
Folk Religion: Beliefs and Practices Outside Organized Religion
The Little Tradition and the Great Tradition
The God of the Everlasting World
Wizards, Shamans, Sacred Mountains, Magic, and Divination
The Sound of Silence and Buddhist Clothing
Folk, Tradition, and Religion
Interaction in Early Religion in Japan
A Multipolar System
Religion in Japan as a Tree
The Formation of a Distinctively Japanese Religious Heritage
The Development and Elaboration of Religion in Japan
The Development of a Japanese Buddhism: Shingon and Tendai
The New Buddhism of the Heian Period
Shingon: Esoteric Buddhism in Japan, Ritual over Philosophy, and Enlightenment in This Body
Kukai and Esoteric Buddhism
Mantras, Mandalas, and Goma (Fire Rite)
Tendai: The Lotus Sutra, Proper Ordination for Monks, and Buddhahood for All Humans
Saicho and Tiantai
Mahayana and the Lotus Sutra
Buddhahood for All Humans, and Esoteric Rites
The Development of Japanese Buddhism, and Religious Trends
The Shrine Tradition, and Shugendo
The Kasuga-Kofukuji Shrine-Temple Complex
Ise Shrine: Purity, Ritual, and Taboos
Shugendo: Mountain Ascetics and Religion for the People
The Kami Tradition and the Shrine Tradition
Elaboration within Japanese Buddhism: Pure Land, Nichiren, and Zen Buddhism
Buddhism: From Heian to Kamakura Times
The Pure Land Sects: Faith in Amida and the Recitation of the Nenbutsu
Nichiren: Faith in the Lotus Sutra as the Exclusive National Buddhism
The Zen Sects: Enlightenment Through Meditation
Dogen: Sitting in Meditation
Zen: Institutional and Artistic Developments
From Kami and Shrine Tradition to Shinto
Kami Secondary to Buddhas
Buddhas Secondary to Kami
Yoshida Kanetomo: Shinto as the Essence of Japan
Shinto Shrines, Buddhist Temples, and Multiplexes
The Appearance of Christianity in Japan
The Introduction of Christianity into Japan
The Acceptance of Christianity in Japan
The Expulsion of Christianity
The Significance of the Christian Century
The Five Traditions: Development and Mutual Influence
Continuity and Discontinuity in Japanese Religions
Buddhism, Neo-Confucianism, and Shinto in the Tokugawa Period
The Tokugawa Anti-Christianity Policy and Funerary Buddhism
The Tokugawa Government and Religion
Tokugawa Buddhism: Decadence or Vitality
Neo-Confucianism: Political Stability and Social Conformity
Neo-Confucianism: The Development of Public and Private Ethics
Restoration Shinto: The Movement for a Purified Shinto
Motoori Norinaga and Restoration Shinto
The Meiji Restoration and State Shinto
The Political and Religious Significance of the Meiji Restoration
The Attempt to Purify and Restore Shinto
The Establishment of Nonreligious Shrine Shinto
Japan as a Nation-State-Nationalism in World Perspective
State Shinto as an Expression of Nationalism and Militarism
Shinto After World War II
Religious Currents from 1868 to 1945
Meiji Buddhism: "Outside Criticism" and "Inside Criticism"
Christianity: Strengths and Weaknesses Since 1868
The New Religions: New Variations from Old Traditions
The Fortunes of Religion 1868-1945: From Freedom of Religion to State Orthodoxy
Three New Religions: Tenrikyo, Soka Gakkai, and Aum Shinrikyo
The Many New Religions: Differences and Similarities
Tenrikyo: A Living Kami and a Joyous Life
Soka Gakkai: Faith in the Lotus Sutra and a Happy Life
Aum Shinrikyo: The Marriage of Religion to Violence
The Significance of the New Religions
Religion in Postwar Japan
Shinto: Disestablishment, National Reorganization, and Local Participation
Buddhism: From Degeneration to Regeneration
Christianity: The Problems of Denominationalism
The Postwar Boom of New Religions
Religious Life in Contemporary Japan
Characterizing Religious Life in Japan
Persistent Themes in Contemporary Japanese Religious Life
Approaches to Religious Change
Transformations of Religious Life in Contemporary Japan
Modalities of Alternative Reality in Contemporary Japan
1984 and 1Q84
Conclusion: The Challenge for Religion in Japan
Annotated Bibliography on Religion in Japan
Index

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