Practical Study of Argument, Enhanced Edition

ISBN-10: 1133934641
ISBN-13: 9781133934646
Edition: 7th 2014
Authors: Trudy Govier
List price: $221.95 Buy it from $48.65
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Description: A PRACTICAL STUDY OF ARGUMENT gives you the tools you need to understand informal logic and formulate a good argument. By focusing on real world examples and including helpful study tools such as exercises with answers, a glossary of common  More...

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Book details

List price: $221.95
Edition: 7th
Copyright year: 2014
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 1/1/2013
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 432
Size: 7.25" wide x 8.75" long x 0.65" tall
Weight: 2.288
Language: English

A PRACTICAL STUDY OF ARGUMENT gives you the tools you need to understand informal logic and formulate a good argument. By focusing on real world examples and including helpful study tools such as exercises with answers, a glossary of common fallacies, chapter summaries, and a book-specific online program (available with the book), A PRACTICAL STUDY OF ARGUMENT, Enhanced Seventh Edition provides you with everything you need to master the material with ease.

Preface
What Is an Argument? (And What Is Not?)
What Is an Argument?
Argument and Opinion
Argument and Indicator Words
Where and How Do You Find Arguments?
Why Are Arguments Important?
What Isn't an Argument?
Argument and Explanation: What's the Difference?
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Pinning Down Argument Structure
Standardizing an Argument
Subarguments
General Strategies for Standardizing Arguments
Further Tools for Understanding Arguments: Location, Scope, and Commitment
Location of Conclusions
Scope of Conclusions and Premises
Commitment, in Conclusions and Premises
Patterns in Arguments
Unstated Premises and Conclusions
Unstated Premises
Unstated Conclusions
An Interesting Sideline: The Question of Visual Arguments
Charity and Accuracy in Argument Interpretation
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Looking at Language
Language and Its Emotional Connotations
Emotionally Charged Language
Euphemism
Language and Clarity
Ambiguity
Semantic Ambiguity
Syntactic Ambiguity
Ambiguity and Argument: The Fallacy of Equivocation
Vagueness
Definitions
Ostensive Definitions
Reportive, or Lexical, Definitions
Stipulative Definitions
Persuasive Definitions
Operational Definitions
An Application: Arguments about What is Natural
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Good Arguments: An Introduction
The ARG Conditions
More on the R and G Conditions
Deductive Entailment
Conductive Support
Inductive Support
Analogy
Using the ARG Conditions to Evaluate Arguments
Failing on the (A) Condition
Failing on the (R) Condition
Failing on the (G) Condition
Satisfying All Three Conditions
The Significance of Argument Evaluation
The Challenge of Argument
Confirmation Bias
Cogency, Soundness, and Validity
Evaluating Arguments and Constructing Your Own Arguments
The Dialectical Context
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Premises: What to Accept and Why
The Dilemma of Premises
When Premises Are Acceptable
Premises Supported by a Cogent Subargument
Premises Supported Elsewhere
Premises Known a Priori to Be True
Common Knowledge
Testimony
Proper Authority
Accepting Premises Provisionally
Summary of Acceptability Conditions
When Premises Are Unacceptable
Easy Refutability
Claim Known a Priori to Be False
Inconsistency between Premises
Vagueness or Ambiguity
The Fallacy of Begging the Question
Summary of Unacceptability Conditions
Internet Sources
Dating of Material
Evaluate the Content of the Material You Find
Chapter Summary
Acceptability of Premises
Unacceptability of Premises
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Working on Relevance
Understanding Relevance
Relevance and the ARG Conditions
Fallacies Involving Irrelevance
The Straw Man Fallacy
The Ad Hominem Fallacy
The Fallacy of Guilt by Association
Fallacious Appeals to Popularity
Fallacious Appeals to Ignorance
A Related Theme: The Burden of Proof
Emotional Appeals, Irrelevance, and Distraction
Other Fallacies Involving Relevance
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Deductive Arguments: Categorical Logic
Deductive Relationships
Four Categorical Forms
Natural Language and Categorical Form
The Universal Affirmative: A
The Universal Negative: E
The Particular Affirmative: I
The Particular Negative: O
Venn Diagrams
Rules of Immediate Inference
Conversion
Contraposition
Obversion
Contradictories
Summary of Rules of Immediate Inference
Contrary and Contradictory Predicates and False Dichotomies
Categorical Logic: Some Philosophical Background
The Categorical Syllogism
The Rules of the Categorical Syllogism
Distribution of Terms
The Middle Term and the Fallacy of the Undistributed Middle
Rules of the Categorical Syllogism
Applying Categorical Logic
Enthymemes
Enthymemes and Sorites
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Deductive Arguments: Propositional Logic
Definition of the Basic Symbols Used in Propositional Logic
Testing for Validity by the Truth Table Technique
The Shorter Truth Table Technique
Translating from English into Propositional Logic
Not
And
Or
If Then
Further Points about Translation
Both … and …
Neither … nor …
Implies that …
Provided That …
Only if…
Necessary Condition
Sufficient Condition
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Unless
Simple Proofs in Propositional Logic
Valid Moves in Propositional Logic
Examples of Simple Proofs
When You Cannot Construct a Proof
Conditional Proof
Propositional Logic and Cogent Arguments
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
An Introduction to Inductive Arguments
Philosophical Background
Inductive Generalizations
The Sample and the Population
Samples
Problems of Sampling: Size and Representativeness
Improving a Sample
Stratified Sampling
An Illustrative Case
Guidelines for Evaluating Inductive Generalizations
Statistical Syllogisms
Language Problems in Contexts of Inductive Argument
Pseudoprecision
Questionable Operational Definitions
Common Errors in Inductive Reasoning
The Biased Sample
Hasty Generalizations
Anecdotal Arguments
The Fallacies of Composition and Division
Composition
Division
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Causal Inductive Arguments
Causation and Meaning
Distinguishing Between Correlation and Cause
Associations and Links
Causal Reasoning: Mill's Methods
Background Knowledge and Inference to the Best Explanation
An Illustrative Mystery
Errors in Causal Reasoning
The Post Hoc Fallacy
Confusing Correlation and Cause
Objectionable Cause
Begging the Question in a Causal Account
Causal Slippery Slope Arguments
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Analogies: Reasoning from Case to Case
The Nature and Functions of Analogy
Analogy and Consistency
Treating Similar Cases Similarly
Case-by-Case Reasoning and Issues of Classification
Refutation by Logical Analogy
Some Points of Method and Critical Strategy
Inductive Analogies
Further Critical Strategies
Loose and Misleading Analogies
The Fallacy of Faulty Analogies
The Fallacy of Two Wrongs Make a Right
The Fallacy of Slippery Assimilation
The Fallacy of Slippery Precedent
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Conductive Arguments and Counterconsiderations
The Nature of Conductive Arguments
Counterconsiderations and Conductive Arguments
Evaluating Conductive Arguments
Counterconsiderations in Other Contexts
Recalling the Confirmation Bias
Chapter Summary
Review of Terms Introduced
Notes
Summary of Fallacies
Answers to Selected Exercises
Index

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