Understanding Aerodynamics Arguing from the Real Physics

ISBN-10: 1119967511
ISBN-13: 9781119967514
Edition: 2012
Authors: Doug McLean
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Description: Much-needed, fresh approach that brings a greater insight into the physical understanding of aerodynamicsBased on the author’s decades of industrial experience with Boeing, this book helps students and practicing engineers to gain a greater physical  More...

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Book details

List price: $127.00
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited
Publication date: 12/26/2012
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 576
Size: 6.75" wide x 9.75" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 2.794
Language: English

Much-needed, fresh approach that brings a greater insight into the physical understanding of aerodynamicsBased on the author’s decades of industrial experience with Boeing, this book helps students and practicing engineers to gain a greater physical understanding of aerodynamics. Relying on clear physical arguments and examples, Mcleanprovides a much-needed, fresh approach to this sometimes contentious subject without shying away from addressing "real" aerodynamic situations as opposed to the oversimplified ones frequently used for mathematical convenience. Motivated by the belief that engineering practice is enhanced in the long run by a robust understanding of the basics as well as real cause-and-effect relationships that lie behind the theory, he provides intuitive physical interpretations and explanations, debunking commonly-held misconceptions and misinterpretations, and building upon the contrasts provided by wrong explanations to strengthen understanding of the right ones.Provides a refreshing view of aerodynamics that is based on the author’s decades of industrial experience yet is always tied to basic fundamentals.Provides intuitive physical interpretations and explanations, debunking commonly-held misconceptions and misinterpretationsOffers new insights to some familiar topics, for example, what the Biot-Savart law really means and why it causes so much confusion, what “Reynolds number” and “incompressible flow” really mean, and a real physical explanation for how an airfoil produces lift.Addresses "real" aerodynamic situations as opposed to the oversimplified ones frequently used for mathematical convenience, and omits mathematical details whenever the physical understanding can be conveyed without them.

Foreword
Series Preface
Preface
List of Symbols
Introduction to the Conceptual Landscape
From Elementary Particles to Aerodynamic Flows
Continuum Fluid Mechanics and the Navier-Stokes Equations
The Continuum Formulation and Its Range of Validity
Mathematical Formalism
Kinematics: Streamlines, Streaklines, Timelines, and Vorticity
Streamlines and Streaklines
Streamtubes, Stream Surfaces, and the Stream Function
Timelines
The Divergence of the Velocity and Green's Theorem
Vorticity and Circulation
The Velocity Potential in Irrotational Flow
Concepts that Arise in Describing the Vorticity Field
Velocity Fields Associated with Concentrations of Vorticity
The Biot-Savart Law and the "Induction" Fallacy
The Equations of Motion and their Physical Meaning
Continuity of the Flow and Conservation of Mass
Forces on Fluid Parcels and Conservation of Momentum
Conservation of Energy
Constitutive Relations and Boundary Conditions
Mathematical Nature of the Equations
The Physics as Viewed in the Eulerian Frame
The Pseudo-Lagrangian Viewpoint
Cause and Effect, and the Problem of Prediction
The Effects of Viscosity
Turbulence, Reynolds Averaging, and Turbulence Modeling
Important Dynamical Relationships
Galilean Invariance, or Independence of Reference Frame
Circulation Preservation and the Persistence of Irrotationality
Behavior of Vortex Tubes in Inviscid and Viscous Flows
Bernoulli Equations and Stagnation Conditions
Crocco's Theorem
Dynamic Similarity
Compressibility Effects and the Mach Number
Viscous Effects and the Reynolds Number
Scaling of Pressure Forces: the Dynamic Pressure
Consequences of Failing to Match All of the Requirements for Similarity
"Incompressible" Flow and Potential Flow
Compressible Flow and Shocks
Steady ID Isentropic Flow Theory
Relations for Normal and Oblique Shock Waves
Boundary Layers
Physical Aspects of Boundary-Layer Flows
The Basic Sequence: Attachment, Transition, Separation
General Development of the Boundary-Layer Flowfield
Boundary-Layer Displacement Effect
Separation from a Smooth Wall
Boundary-Layer Theory
The Boundary-Layer Equations
Integrated Momentum Balance in a Boundary Layer
The Displacement Effect and Matching with the Outer Flow
The Vorticity "Budget" in a 2D Incompressible Boundary Layer
Situations That Violate the Assumptions of Boundary-Layer Theory
Summary of Lessons from Boundary-Layer Theory
Flat-Plate Boundary Layers and Other Simplified Cases
Flat-Plate Flow
2D Boundary-Layer Flows with Similarity
Axisymmetric Flow
Plane-of-Symmetry and Attachment-Line Boundary Layers
Simplifying the Effects of Sweep and Taper in 3D
Transition and Turbulence
Boundary-Layer Transition
Turbulent Boundary Layers
Control and Prevention of Flow Separation
Body Shaping and Pressure Distribution
Vortex Generators
Steady Tangential Blowing through a Slot
Active Unsteady Blowing
Suction
Heat Transfer and Compressibility
Heat Transfer, Compressibility, and the Boundary-Layer Temperature Field
The Thermal Energy Equation and the Prandtl Number
The Wall Temperature and Other Relations for an Adiabatic Wall
Effects of Surface Roughness
General Features of Flows around Bodies
The Obstacle Effect
Basic Topology of Flow Attachment and Separation
Attachment and Separation in 2D
Attachment and Separation in 3D
Streamline Topology on Surfaces and in Cross Sections
Wakes
Integrated Forces: Lift and Drag
Drag and Propulsion
Basic Physics and Flowfield Manifestations of Drag and Thrust
Basic Physical Effects of Viscosity y
The Role of Turbulence
Direct and Indirect Contributions to the Drag Force on the Body
Determining Drag from the Flowfield: Application of Conservation Laws
Examples of Flowfield Manifestations of Drag in Simple 2D Flows
Pressure Drag of Streamlined and Bluff Bodies A
Questionable Drag Categories: Parasite Drag, Base Drag, and Slot Drag
Effects of Distributed Surface Roughness on Turbulent Skin Friction
Interference Drag
Some Basic Physics of Propulsion
Drag Estimation
Empirical Correlations
Effects of Surface Roughness on Turbulent Skin Friction
CFD Prediction of Drag
Drag Reduction
Reducing Drag by Maintaining a Run of Laminar Flow
Reduction of Turbulent Skin Friction
Lift and Airfoils in 2D at Subsonic Speeds
Mathematical Prediction of Lift in 2D
Lift in Terms of Circulation and Bound Vorticity
The Classical Argument for the Origin of the Bound Vorticity
Physical Explanations of Lift in 2D
Past Explanations and their Strengths and Weaknesses
Desired Attributes of a More Satisfactory Explanation
A Basic Explanation of Lift on an Airfoil, Accessible to a Nontechnical Audience
More Physical Details on Lift in 2D, for the Technically Inclined
Airfoils
Pressure Distributions and Integrated Forces at Low Math Numbers
Profile Drag and the Drag Polar
Maximum Lift and Boundary-Layer Separation on Single-Element Airfoils
Multielement Airfoils and the Slot Effect
Cascades
Low-Drag Airfoils with Laminar Flow
Low-Reynolds-Number Airfoils
Airfoils in Transonic Flow
Airfoils in Ground Effect
Airfoil Design
Issues that Arise in Defining Airfoil Shapes
Lift and Wings in 3D at Subsonic Speeds
The Flowfield around a 3D Wing
General Characteristics of the Velocity Field
The Vortex Wake
The Pressure Field around a 3D Wing
Explanations for the Flowfield
Vortex Shedding from Edges Other Than the Trailing Edge
Distribution of Lift on a 3D Wing
Basic and Additional Spanloads
Linearized Lifting-Surface Theory
Lifting-Line Theory
3D Lift in Ground Effect
Maximum Lift, as Limited by 3D Effects
Induced Drag
Basic Scaling of Induced Drag
Induced Drag from a Farfield Momentum Balance
Induced Drag in Terms of Kinetic Energy and an Idealized Rolled-Up Vortex Wake
Induced Drag from the Loading on the Wing Itself: Treffiz-Plane Theory
Ideal (Minimum) Induced-Drag Theory
Span-Efficiency Factors
The Induced-Drag Polar
The Sin-Series Spanloads
The Reduction of Induced Drag in Ground Effect
The Effect of a Fuselage on Induced Drag
Effects of a Canard or Aft Tail on Induced Drag
Biplane Drag
Wingtip Devices
Myths Regarding the Vortex Wake, and Some Questionable Ideas for Wingtip Devices
The Facts of Life Regarding Induced Drag and Induced-Drag Reduction
Milestones in the Development of Theory and Practice
Wingtip Device Concepts
Effectiveness of Various Device Configurations
Manifestations of Lift in the Atmosphere at Large
The Net Vertical Momentum Imparted to the Atmosphere
The Pressure Far above and below the Airplane
Downwash in the Treffiz Plane and Other Momentum-Conservation Issues
Sears's Incorrect Analysis of the Integrated Pressure Far Downstream
The Real Flowfield Far Downstream of the Airplane
Effects of Wing Sweep
Simple Sweep Theory
Boundary Layers on Swept Wings
Shock/Boundary-Layer Interaction on Swept Wings
Laminar-to-Turbulent Transition on Swept Wings
Relating a Swept, Tapered Wing to a 2D Airfoil
Tailoring of the Inboard Pail of a Swept Wing
Theoretical Idealizations Revisited
Approximations Grouped According to how the Equations were Modified
Reduced Temporal and/or Spatial Resolution
Simplified Theories Based on Neglecting Something Small
Reductions in Dimensions
Simplified Theories Based on Ad hoc Flow Models
Qualitative Anomalies and Other Consequences of Approximations
Some Tools of MFD (Mental Fluid Dynamics)
Simple Conceptual Models for Thinking about Velocity Fields
Thinking about Viscous and Shock Drag
Thinking about Induced Drag
A Catalog of Fallacies
Modeling Aerodynamic Flows in Computational Fluid Dynamics
Basic Definitions
The Major Classes of CFD Codes and Their Applications
Navier-Stokes Methods
Coupled Viscous/Inviscid Methods
Inviscid Methods
Standalone Boundary-Layer Codes
Basic Characteristics of Numerical Solution Schemes
Discretization
Spatial Field Grids
Grid Resolution and Grid Convergence
Solving the Equations, and Iterative Convergence
Physical Modeling in CFD
Compressibility and Shocks
Viscous Effects and Turbulence
Separated Shear Layers and Vortex Wakes
The Farfield
Predicting Drag
Propulsion Effects
CFD Validation?
Integrated Forces and the Components of Drag
Solution Visualization
Things a User Should Know about a CFD Code before Running it
References
Index

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