Meaning and Argument An Introduction to Logic Through Language

ISBN-10: 1118390199
ISBN-13: 9781118390191
Edition: 2nd 2012 (Revised)
List price: $78.95
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Description: Meaning and Argument is a popular introduction to philosophy of logic and philosophy of language.Offers a distinctive philosophical, rather than mathematical, approach to logicConcentrates on symbolization and works out all the technical logic with  More...

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Book details

List price: $78.95
Edition: 2nd
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons, Incorporated
Publication date: 8/23/2012
Binding: Paperback
Pages: 464
Size: 6.00" wide x 9.50" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 1.474
Language: English

Meaning and Argument is a popular introduction to philosophy of logic and philosophy of language.Offers a distinctive philosophical, rather than mathematical, approach to logicConcentrates on symbolization and works out all the technical logic with truth tables instead of derivationsIncorporates the insights of half a century's work in philosophy and linguistics on anaphora by Peter Geach, Gareth Evans, Hans Kamp, and Irene Heim among othersContains numerous exercises and a corresponding answer keyAn extensive appendix allows readers to explore subjects that go beyond what is usually covered in an introductory logic courseUpdated edition includes over a dozen new problem sets and revisions throughoutFeatures an accompanying website at http://ruccs.rutgers.edu/~logic/MeaningArgument.html

Preface to Revised Second Edition
Preface to Second Edition
Preface to Revised Edition
Acknowledgments
Introduction to Teacher
A Brief Introduction to Key Terms
Arguments
What is a Statement?
Premises and Conclusion
Putting Arguments into a Standard Format
Multiple Conclusions
Deductive Validity
Soundness
Missing Premises and Conclusions
Argument Forms and Propositional Logic
Formal Validity
Quotation Marks
Metalinguistic Variables
Non-formal Validity
The Need for Propositional Logic
Symbolic Notation
The Type/Token Distinction
Conjunction
Logical Conjunction
Distinguishing Deductive from Non-deductive Aspects of Conjunction
Phrasal Logical Conjunctions
Series Decompounding
Using 'Respectively'
Symbolizing Logical Conjunctions
Negation
Logical Negation
Some Other Negative Expressions
A Point about Methodology
A Point on Ambiguity
Symbolizing Logical Negations
Ambiguity and the Need for Groupers
Review of Symbols
Using 'Without'
Argument Forms Continued
Symbolizing Logical Negations Continued
Truth Tables
Well-formed Formulas
Scope
Main Connective
Truth Tables
Truth Table Analyses of Statements
Truth Table Analyses of Arguments
Disjunction
Logical Disjunction
Disjunction and Negation
Iterations and Groupers
Inclusive versus Exclusive 'Or'
Symbolizing Logical Disjunctions Continued
Conditionals
Conditionals with Constituent Statements
Conditionals without Constituent Statements
Logical Conditionals
Symbolizing Conditionals in PL
Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Only If
Unless
Since, Because
Conditionals and Groupers
If and Only If
A Revised Grammar for Well-formedness in PL
Summarizing Truth Tables
Validity
Contradiction, Tautology, Contingency
Consistency
Logical Equivalence
Truth Trees
Reviewing Validity
Tree Trunks and Compound and Atomic Statements
Truth Tree Rules
Non-branching Rules
Branching Rules
Strategies
Truth Trees and Invalidity
Propositional Logic and Counter-examples (Counter-models)
Logical Properties and Relations Revisited
Consistency
Contradiction, Tautology, Contingency
Logical Equivalence
Property Predicate Logic
Limits of Propositional Logic
Singular Terms
Property Predicates
Quantifiers
Simple Existential Quantifier Statements
Symbolizing Simple Existential Statements
Simple Universal Quantifier Statements
Negations of Existentials
Complex Predicates
Well-formedness in PPL
Quantifiers Modifying General Terms
Existential Quantifiers and General Terms
Universal Quantifiers and General Terms
Evaluating Arguments in Property Predicate Logic
Quantifiers and Scope
The Truth Tree Method Extended
Quantifier Exchange Rule (QE)
Universal Quantifier Rule (UQ)
Existential Quantifier Rule (EQ)
Super Strategy
Property Predicate Logic and Counter-examples (Counter-models)
PPL Logical Equivalences and Non-equivalences
Other Logical Properties and Relations
Consistency
Logical Equivalence
Contradiction, Logical Truth, Contingency
Property Predicate Logic Refinements
Literal Meaning
'Any' as an Existential
Restrictive Relative Clauses
Pronouns Revisited
Deixis and Anaphora
Quantification and Anaphora
Only
Restrictive Words in English
Evaluating Symbolizations of English in Logical Notation
Relational Predicate Logic
Limits of Property Predicate Logic
Convention 1: Number
Convention 2: Order
Convention 3: Active/Passive Voice
Convention 4: Single Quantifiers
Variables
Convention 5: Variables and Quantifiers
Convention 6: Variables and Property Predicates
General Comments about Variables
Relational Predicate Logic with Nested Quantifiers
Multiply General Statements
Universal Quantifier Procedure
Existential Quantifier Procedure
Double Binding Variables
Kicking Out
Systematic and Analytic Procedures
A Grammar for Well-formedness in RPL
Nested Quantifiers, Variables, and Scope
Order and Scope Refinements
The Order and Scope Procedure
Summary of the Overall Procedure for Symbolizing English Statements with Nested Quantifiers into RPL
Extending the Truth Tree Method to RPL
RPL Arguments without Quantifiers
RPL Arguments without Nested Quantifiers
RPL Arguments with Nested Quantifiers
Choosing Singular Terms to Instantiate
Infinite Truth Trees for RPL Arguments
Summary of Truth Tree Strategies
Relational Predicate Logic and Counter-examples (Counter-models)
Negation, Only, and Restrictive Relative Clauses
Negation
'Only' as a Quantifier
Restrictive Relative Clauses
The Quantificational Restrictive Relative Clause Procedure
Quantifiers and Anaphora
Repair Algorithm
Anaphora and Restrictive Relative Clauses
Anaphora Across Sentences
Quantification in English
Relational Predicate Logic with Identity
Limits of Relational Predicate Logic
Extending the Truth Tree Method to RPL=
Identity-out Rule
Identity-in Rule
Sameness and Distinctness in English
'Only' Again
Words of Distinction: Except, But, Other (than), Besides, Else
Numerical Adjectives
At Least n
At Most n (No More than n)
Exactly n
Counting Pairs
Combinatorics (optional)
Definite Descriptions
The Definite Description Quantifier Procedure
Definite Descriptions as Anaphors
Plural Definite Descriptions
Verbs and their Modifiers
Prepositional Phrases
The Event Approach
Indirect Support of the Event Approach
Fixing Referents and Binding Anaphoric Pronouns
Quantification over Events
Conversational Inferences and Events
Methodological Reflections
Adverbial Modification
Problems with the Event Approach
Appendix
Conjunction
Prepositional Phrases
Conversational Inferences and Deductive Validity
Relative Clauses
Negation and Disjunction
Modalities and Negation
Disjunction and Conversational Inferences
Conditionals
Explication of the Material Conditional Truth Table
Paradoxes of implication
Conditionals and conversational inferences
Paradoxes of implication revisited
'If 's and 'Then's without Conditionality
Property Predicate Logic
Only
Conversational Inferences
Existential import
Scalar inferences
More on Literal Meaning
Adjectival Modification and Predication
A Non-standard Quantifier - Most
Relational Predicate Logic
Passive Voice: Another Argument for Variables
Passive voice for nested quantifier procedure
Properties of Relations
Symmetry, asymmetry, non-symmetry
Transitivity, intransitivity, non-transitivity
Total reflexivity, reflexivity, irreflexivity, and non-reflexivity
Relational Predicate Logic with Identity
'Only' and Existential Import
Descriptions and Anaphora
Plural Anaphora
Plural definite descriptions as anaphors
Singular indefinite antecedents of plural pronouns
Partitives
Existence
Intensionality
Properties of the Identity Relationship
The Superlative
Identity and Predicative Adjectives
Verbs and their Modifiers
Infinitives and Gerunds
Reference to Events
The Logic of Perceptual Verbs
Answers for Selected Exercises
Appendix

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