Concise Introduction to Logic

ISBN-10: 1111346232
ISBN-13: 9781111346232
Edition: 11th 2012
List price: $234.95
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Book details

List price: $234.95
Edition: 11th
Copyright year: 2012
Publisher: Wadsworth
Publication date: 1/1/2011
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 736
Size: 7.25" wide x 9.25" long x 1.00" tall
Weight: 2.926
Language: English

Informal Logic
Basic Concepts
Arguments,Premises, and Conclusions
Note on the History of Logic
Recognizing Arguments
Eminent Logicians: Aristotle
Simple Noninferential Passages
Expository Passages
Conditional Statements
Deduction and Induction
Ruth Barcan Marcus
Deductive Argument Forms
Inductive Argument Forms
Further Considerations
Validity, Truth, Soundness, Strength, Cogency
Deductive Arguments
Inductive Arguments
Eminent Logicians: Chrysippus
Argument Forms: Proving Invalidity
Counterexample Method
Extended Arguments
Language: Meaning and Definition
Varieties of Meaning
The Intension and Extension of Terms
Definitions and Their Purposes
Stipulative Definitions
Lexical Definitions
Precising Definitions
Eminent Logicians: Peter Abelard
Theoretical Definitions
Persuasive Definitions
Definitional Techniques
Extensional (Denotative) Definitions
Intensional (Connotative) Definitions
Criteria for Lexical Definitions
A Lexical Definition Should Conform to the Standards of Proper Grammar
A Lexical Definition Should Convey the Essential Meaning of the Word Being Defined
A Lexical Definition Should Be Neither Too Broad nor Too Narrow
A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Circularity
A Lexical Definition Should Not Be Negative When It Can Be Affirmative
A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Figurative, Obscure,Vague, or Ambiguous Language
A Lexical Definition Should Avoid Affective Terminology
A Lexical Definition Should Indicate the Context to Which the Definiens Pertains
Informal Fallacies
Fallacies in General
Fallacies of Relevance
Appeal to Force (Argumentum ad Baculum: Appeal to the"Stick")
Appeal to Pity (Argumentum ad Misericordiam)
Appeal to the People (Argumentum ad Populum)
Argument Against the Person (Argumentum ad Hominem)
Straw Man
Missing the Point (Ignoratio Elenchi )
Red Herring
Fallacies of Weak Induction
Appeal to Unqualified Authority (Argumentum ad Verecundiam)
Appeal to Ignorance. (Argumentum ad Ignorantiam)
Hasty Generalization (Converse Accident)
False Cause
Slippery Slope
Weak Analogy
Eminent Logicians: William of Ockham
Fallacies of Presumption, Ambiguity, and Grammatical Analogy
Begging the Question (Petitio Principii)
Complex Question
False Dichotomy
Suppressed Evidence
Fallacies in Ordinary Language
Detecting Fallacies
Avoiding Fallacies
Formal Logic
Categorical Propositions
The Components of Categorical Propositions
Alice Ambrose
Quality, Quantity, and Distribution
Venn Diagrams and the Modern Square of Opposition
Aristotle and Boole
Eminent Logicians: George Boole
Venn Diagrams
The Modern Square of Opposition
Testing Immediate Inferences
Conversion, Obversion, and Contraposition
The Traditional Square of Opposition
Testing Immediate Inferences
Venn Diagrams and the Traditional Standpoint
Proving the Traditional Square of Opposition
Testing Immediate Inferences
Translating Ordinary Language Statements into Categorical Form
Terms Without Nouns
Nonstandard Verbs
Singular Propositions
Adverbs and Pronouns
Unexpressed Quantifiers
Nonstandard Quantifiers
Conditional Statements
Exclusive Propositions
"The Only"
Exceptive Propositions
Categorical Syllogisms
Standard Form, Mood, and Figure
Venn Diagrams
Eminent Logicians: John Venn
Boolean Standpoint
Aristotelian Standpoint
Rules and Fallacies
Boolean Standpoint
Aristotelian Standpoint
Proving the Rules
Reducing the Number of Terms
Saul Kripke
Ordinary Language Arguments
Propositional Logic
Symbols and Translation
Eminent Logicians: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Truth Functions
Definitions of the Logical Operators
Computing the Truth Value of Longer Propositions
Further Comparison with Ordinary Language
Truth Tables for Propositions
Classifying Statements
Comparing Statements
Truth Tables for Arguments
Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace
Indirect Truth Tables
Preliminary Skills
Testing Arguments for Validity
Testing Statements for Consistency
Eminent Logicians: Augustus De Morgan
Argument Forms and Fallacies
Common Argument Forms
Refuting Constructive and Destructive Dilemmas
Note on Invalid Forms
Summary and Application
Natural Deduction in Propositional Logic
Rules of Implication I
Rules of Implication II
Rules of Replacement I. Willard Van Orman Quine
Rules of Replacement Ii
Conditional Proof
Eminent Logicians: Gottlob Frege
Indirect Proof
Proving Logical Truths
Predicate Logic
Symbols and Translation
Using the Rules of Inference
Change of Quantifier Rule
Eminent Logicians: Alfred North Whitehead and Bertrand Russell
Conditional and Indirect Proof
Proving Invalidity
Counterexample Method
Finite Universe Method
Relational Predicates and Overlapping Quantifiers
Translating Relational Statements
Using the Rules of Inference
Simple Identity Statements
Eminent Logicians: Kurt G?del
"Only," "The Only," and "No . . . Except"
"All Except"
Numerical Statements
Definite Descriptions
Using the Rules of Inference
Inductive Logic
Analogy and Legal and Moral Reasoning
Analogical Reasoning
Legal Reasoning
Moral Reasoning
Causality and Mill's Methods
"Cause"and Necessary and Sufficient Conditions
Mill's Five Methods
Method of Agreement
Method of Difference
Eminent Logicians: John Stuart Mill
Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
Method of Residues
Method of Concomitant Variation
Mill's Methods and Science
Theories of Probability
The Probability Calculus
Restricted Conjunction Rule
General Conjunction Rule
Restricted Disjunction Rule
General Disjunction Rule
Negation Rule
Bayes's Theorem
Additional Applications
Statistical Reasoning
Evaluating Statistics
The Meaning of "Average"
Graphs and Pictograms
Hypothetical/Scientific Reasoning
The Hypothetical Method
Hypothetical Reasoning: Four Examples from Science Radium
Atmospheric Pressure
Spontaneous Generation
The Proof of Hypotheses
Eminent Logicians: Charles Sanders Peirce
The Tentative Acceptance of Hypotheses
Science and Superstition
Distinguishing Between Science and Superstition
Evidentiary Support
Concluding Remarks
Appendix: Logic and Graduate-Level Admissions Tests
Answers to Selected Exercises

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