Ecology of Plants

ISBN-10: 0878932917
ISBN-13: 9780878932917
Edition: 2002
List price: $89.95 Buy it from $42.21
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Description: This textbook covers general ecology, but with the focus on the interactions between plants and their environment over a range of scales. It also emphasizes the importance of evolutionary and other historical processes for contemporary ecology.

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Book details

List price: $89.95
Copyright year: 2002
Publisher: Sinauer Associates, Incorporated
Binding: Hardcover
Pages: 484
Size: 8.75" wide x 11.00" long x 1.25" tall
Weight: 3.938
Language: English

This textbook covers general ecology, but with the focus on the interactions between plants and their environment over a range of scales. It also emphasizes the importance of evolutionary and other historical processes for contemporary ecology.

Preface
The Science of Plant Ecology
Ecology as a Science
The Genesis of Scientific Knowledge
Objectivity, Subjectivity, Choice, and Chance in Scientific Research
Experiments: The Heart of Research
Testing Theories
Specific Results versus General Understanding
Scale and Heterogeneity
The Structure and History of Plant Ecology
The Individual and its Environment
Photosynthesis and the Light Environment
The Process of Photosynthesis
Photosynthetic Rates
Limitations Caused by Light Levels
Limitations on Carbon Uptake
Variation in Photosynthetic Rates within and between Habitats
Photorespiration
The Three Photosynthetic Pathways
C[subscript 3] Photosynthesis
C[subscript 4] Photosynthesis
Stable Isotopes and Photosynthesis
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM Photosynthesis)
Evolution of the Three Photosynthetic Pathways
Phylogeny of the Photosynthetic Pathways
Photosynthesis Through Evolutionary Time
Growth Form, Phenology, and Distribution of C[subscript 3], C[subscript 4], and CAM Plants
Growth Forms and Habitats
Phenology
Geographic Distributions
Adaptations to the Light Environment
Sun and Shade Leaves
Species' Adaptations to High and Low Light Habitats
Leaf Iridescence and Structural Coloration
Do Sun and Shade Adaptations Exist within Species?
Day Length: Responses and Adaptations
Water Relations and Energy Balance
Adapting to Life on Land
Water Potential
The Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum
Transpiration and the Control of Water Loss
Strategies for Coping with Water Availability Conditions
Whole-Plant Adaptations to Low Water Availability
Physiological Adaptations
Anatomical and Morphological Adaptations
The Energy Balance of Leaves
Radiant Energy
Why the Sky Is Blue and the Setting Sun Is Red
Conduction and Convection
Latent Heat Exchange
Putting It All Together: Leaf Temperature
Soils, Mineral Nutrition, and Belowground Interactions
Soil Composition and Structure
Soil Texture
Soil pH
Horizons and Profiles
Origins and Classification
Organic Matter and the Role of Organisms
Water Movement within Soils
Plant Mineral Nutrition
Nitrogen in Plants and Soils
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
Symbioses and Mutualisms
Phosphorus
Mycorrhizae
Major Groups of Mycorrhizae
The Role of Mycorrhizae in Plant Phosphorus Nutrition
Other Functions of Mycorrhizae
Orchids and Their Mycorrhizal Associations
Mutualism or Parasitism?
Plant Interconnections via Mycorrhizal Fungi
Evolution and Population Biology
Processes of Evolution
Natural Selection
Variation and Natural Selection
The Components of Natural Selection
Phenotypic Variation and Phenotypic Plasticity
Heritability
Resemblance among Relatives
Partitioning Phenotypic Variation
Genotype-Environment Interactions
Gene-Environment Covariation
Patterns of Adaptation
Levels of Selection
Other Evolutionary Processes
Processes that Increase Variation
Processes that Decrease Variation
Variation among Populations
Outcomes of Evolution
Heavy-Metal Tolerance
Ecotypes
Adaptive Plasticity
Selection in Structured Populations
Frequency-Dependent Selection
Group Selection
Convergent Evolution
Speciation
Population Structure, Growth, and Decline
Some Issues in the Study of Plant Population Growth
Population Structure
Some Population Structure Issues Special to Plants
Sources of Population Structure
Studying Population Growth and Decline
Life Cycle Graphs
Demography of an Endangered Cactus, Coryphantha Robbinsorum
Matrix Models
Analyzing Matrix Models
Multiplying a Population Vector by a Matrix
But Real Plants Live in Variable Environments
Lifetime Reproduction: The Net Reproductive Rate
Reproductive Value: The Contribution of Each Stage to Population Growth
Partial Derivatives
Sensitivity
Elasticity
Age and Stage Revisited
Other Approaches to Modeling Plant Demography
Demographic Studies of Long-Lived Plants
Random Variation in Population Growth and Decline
Causes of Random Variation
Long-Term Growth Rates
Studying Variable Population Growth
Growth and Reproduction of Individuals
Plant Growth
Ecology of Growth
Plant Architecture and Light Interception
Growth of Clonal Plants
Plant Reproduction
Vegetative Reproduction
Seeds Produced Asexually
Sexual Life Cycles of Plants
Pollination Ecology
Wind Pollination
Attracting Animal Visitors: Visual Displays
Attracting Animal Visitors: Floral Odors and Acoustic Guides
Limiting Unwanted Visits
Pollination Syndromes
Aquatic Plants and Pollination
Specialized Plants and Pollinators
Who Mates with Whom?
Plant Gender
Competition for Pollinators and among Pollen Grains
Pollination Experiments
Pollen Dispersal and Its Consequences
Assortative Mating
Understanding Plant Mating Systems
The Ecology of Fruits and Seeds
Seed Dispersal Patterns
Seed Banks
Plant Life Histories
Size and Number of Seeds
Life History Strategies
Seed Germination
Life Span
r- and K-selection
Grime's Triangular Model
Demographic Life History Theory
Reproductive Allocation
Bet Hedging in a Variable Environment
Difficulties in Measuring Trade-Offs
Phenology: Within-Year Schedules of Growth and Reproduction
Vegetative Phenology
Evergreen versus Deciduous Habits
Reproductive Phenology: Abiotic Factors
Reproductive Phenology: Biotic Factors
From Populations to Communities
Competition
Competition at the Level of Individuals
Size and Density
Mortality, Size, and Density
Mechanisms of Competition
Is Bigger Better?
Apparent Competition
Populations and Competition
Competitive Hierarchies
Quantifying Competition
Experimental Methods for Studying Competition
Greenhouse and Garden Experiments
The Implications of How Competition is Measured
Field Experiments
Mechanisms of Interspecific Competition
Resource-Based Competition
Trade-Offs and Strategies
Allelopathy
Modeling Competition
Two Equilibrium Approaches
Patch-Based and Nonequilibrium Models
Effects of Competition on Community Composition
Competition along Environmental Gradients
Conceptual Models of Competition in Habitats with Differing Productivities
Experimental Evidence
Evidence from Research Syntheses
Resolution of Differing Results
Herbivory and Plant-Pathogen Interactions
Herbivory at the Level of Individuals
Herbivory and Plant Populations
Herbivory and Spatial Distribution of Plants
Granivory
Biological Control
Effects of Herbivory at the Community Level
Consequences of Herbivore Behavior
Introduced and Domesticated Herbivores
Effects of Native Herbivores
Generality
Plant Defenses
Plant Physical Defenses
Plant Secondary Chemistry
Constitutive versus Induced Defenses
Evolutionary Consequences of Plant-Herbivore Interactions
Pathogens
Responses of Individual Plants to Infection
More Complex Interactions
Community Properties
What Is a Community?
Communities, Taxa, Guilds, and Functional Groups
The History of a Controversy
A Modern Perspective on the Issues in Contention
Are Communities Real?
A Deeper Look at Some Definitions: Abiotic Factors and Emergent Properties
Describing Communities
Species Richness
Diversity, Evenness, and Dominance
Sampling Methods and Parameters for Describing Community Composition
Physiognomy
Long-Term Studies
The Long-Term Ecological Research Network
Disturbance and Succession
Theories of the Causes of Succession
Disturbance
Gaps
Fire
Wind
Water
Animals
Earthquakes and Volcanoes
Disease
Humans
Colonization
Determining the Nature of Succession
Interaction between Methodology and Understanding
Mechanisms Responsible for Successional Change
The Predictability of Succession
Primary Succession
Climax Revisited
Local Abundance, Diversity, and Rarity
Dominance
Are Dominant Species Competitively Superior?
Abundance Curves
Rarity and Commonness
The Nature of Rarity
Patterns of Rarity and Commonness
Causes of Rarity and Commonness
Invasive Species and Community Susceptibility
Why Do Some Species Become Invasive?
What Makes a Community Susceptible to Invasion?
Abundance and Community Structure
Productivity and Diversity
Niche Differentiation, Environmental Heterogeneity, and Diversity
Gaps, Disturbance, and Diversity
Effects of Increasing Diversity
Testing the Effects of Diversity on Ecosystems
Diversity and Stability
Regional Processes
From Ecosystems to Landscapes
Ecosystem Processes
Biogeochemical Cycles: Quantifying Pools and Fluxes
The Global Water Cycle
Carbon in Ecosystems
Decomposition and Soil Food Webs
Productivity
Methods for Estimating Productivity
Carbon Storage
Models of Ecosystem Carbon Cycles
Nitrogen and the Nitrogen Cycle at Ecosystem and Global Levels
Nitrogen Fixation
Other Sources of Nitrogen Input to Living Organisms
Nitrogen Mineralization
Denitrification and Leaching of Nitrogen
Decomposition Rates and Nitrogen Immobilization
Plant Uptake of Nitrogen
Phosphorus in Terrestrial Ecosystems
Ecosystem Nutrient Cycling and Plant Diversity
Serpentine Soils
Ecosystem Processes for Some Other Elements
Sulfur
Calcium
Communities in Landscapes
Comparing Communities
Non-numerical Techniques
Univariate Techniques
Multivariate Techniques
Landscape Patterns
Ordination: Describing Patterns
Determining Causes of Patterns
Types of Data
Classification
Views on Continuous versus Discrete Landscapes
Differentiating Vegetation Based on Spectral Quality
Landscape Diversity
Differentiation Diversity
Pattern Diversity
Landscape Ecology
Spatial Patterns
Defining Patches
Quantifying Patch Characteristics and Interrelationships
Scale
Definitions and Concepts
Spatial and Ecological Scale
Quantifying Aspects of Spatial Pattern and Scale
Toward a Theoretical Basis for Landscape Patterns: Island Biogeography Theory
Metapopulation Theory
Metapopulation Models
Metapopulation Patterns
Landscape Ecology and Conservation
Reserve Design
Fragmentation
Edges, Connectivity, and Nestedness
Global Patterns and Processes
Climate and Physiognomy
Climate and Weather
Temperature
Short-Term Variation in Radiation and Temperature
Long-Term Cycles
Precipitation
Global Patterns
The Coriolis Effect
Continental-Scale Patterns
Seasonal Variation in Precipitation
The El Nino Southern Oscillation
Predictability and Long-Term Change
Plant Physiognomy across the Globe
Forests
Tree Line
Grasslands and Woodlands
Shrublands and Deserts
Biomes
Categorizing Vegetation
Moist Tropical Forests
Tropical Rainforest
Tropical Montane Forest
Seasonal Tropical Forests and Woodlands
Tropical Deciduous Forest
Thorn Forest
Tropical Woodland
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Other Temperate Forests and Woodlands
Temperate Rainforest
Temperate Evergreen Forest
Temperate Woodland
Taiga
Temperate Shrubland
Grasslands
Temperate Grassland
Tropical Savanna
Deserts
Hot Desert
Cold Desert
Alpine and Arctic Vegetation
Grassland and Shrubland
Tundra
Regional and Global Diversity
Large-Scale Patterns of Diversity
Levels of Explanation
Explanations for Latitudinal Gradients
Continental Differences
Other Geographic Patterns
Species Diversity and Patterns of Overlap
Endemism, Centers of Diversification, and Isolation
Relationships between Regional and Local Diversity
The Fynbos and the Cape Region of South Africa
Productivity and Scale
Paleoecology
The Paleozoic Era
The Mesozoic Era
The Dominance of Gymnosperms
The Breakup of Pangaea and the Rise of the Angiosperms
The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary
The Cenozoic Era
Paleoecology Methods
The Recent Past
At the Glacial Maximum
Glacial Retreat
Climate Fluctuations in the Recent Past
Global Change: Humans and Plants
Carbon and Plant-Atmosphere Interactions
The Global Carbon Cycle
Direct Effects of Increasing CO[subscript 2] on Plants
Anthropogenic Global Climate Change
The Greenhouse Effect
Global Climate Change: Evidence
Global Climate Change: Predictions
Modeling Climate
Biotic Consequences of Climate Change
Anthropogenic Effects on the Global Carbon Cycle
Deforestation
Fossil Fuel Combustion
Daily Human Activities and CO[subscript 2] Generation
Acid Precipitation and Nitrogen Deposition
Declining Global Biodiversity and Its Causes
Habitat Fragmentation and Loss
Invasive Species and Other Threats to Biodiversity
Human Populations and Land Use Patterns
A Ray of Hope?
A Statistics Primer
Data Description
Estimating Accuracy
Using and Reporting Statistics
Photo Credits
Glossary
Literature Cited
Index

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